Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Introduction the Critique of Pure Reason - Research Paper Example In KantÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments, he spoke of the concepts that structure human experience. Kant termed the perceptions that structure human experience as fundamental concepts. On the topic of morality, Kant argued that there cannot be any morality without reason. Kant paced reason as the driver towards a morality motivated life. Immanuel Kant stated that reasoning was the basis of human existence, and moral being should embrace logic for a peaceful and well-developed life. Kant is an individual who had a foremost influence in the present day thinking and practice. Kant had an imperative knowledge in the field of metaphysics, ethics, esthetics and political philosophy. The knowledge that Kant had in the above fields was a particular strength and motivator towards coming up with his findings on human experience. KantÃ¢â¬â¢s experience in different areas of philosophy enabled him conduct his research from different perspectives. Kant, therefore, came up with enough prove to support his arg ument. KantÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is considered one of the building stones in the modern society because morality and human experience are some of the infinite features of human existence. Immanuel Kant, therefore, remains an important figure up to today, due to his advancements on the requirements for human life in the modern contemporary society. On the concept of priori judgment, Kant had several observations to make. Kant stipulated that there were two types of propositions; analytic and synthetic propositions. Priori judgment is also known as analytic experience. Analytic judgments are perceptions or concepts that can be said to be true by virtues of their meaning. Kant explained that some ideas of thought needed minimal explanations. The ideas purely express themselves without the need for the further course of reasoning (Kant, pg. 44). Such prepositions are referred to as analytic because their analysis does not necessarily mean it has to be related
Monday, October 28, 2019
Reading comprehension Essay ABSTRACT. sion The (STRAT), authors evaluated instruction, strategies followed reciprocal same-age the effectiveness by practice + SA) (STRAT of explicit in teacher-led reading whole-class activities, peer-tutoring comprehen activities or cross-age peer-tutoring activities (STRAT + CA) on 2nd and 5th graders reading comprehen sion and self-efficacy For perceptions. 2nd multilevel graders, analyses revealed sig nificant STRAT and STRAT + CA effects; however, the effects did not last after fin the program. Fifth graders on the posttest better than ishing icantly in all 3 experimentalÃ control group their conditions Results peers. performed signif con also showed tinued growth for the STRAT and STRAT + CA conditions until at least 6 months after students finished the program. Moreover, on both the posttest and retention test, 5th graders in the STRAT + CA condition reported significantly fewer negative thoughts Key words: prehension, related to their elementary reading reading proficiency. multilevel education, strategies, modeling, peer tutoring, reading com self-efficacy RESEARCH, decoding instruction has had a long and continuous of attention and debate. However, a hiatus can be recorded in the study of history reading comprehension. Two decades ago, strategy intervention research was in instruction received renewed atten vogue, but only recently has comprehension with current studies building on what was accomplished in the 1980s. Now, tion, the challenge in reading comprehension research is to increase the efficacy of in struction in elementary schools by identifying the instructional practices and ac tivities that best serve to develop childrens self-monitoring for comprehension IN READING (Snow, Burns, Griffin, 1998). 291. This content downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 01:52:54 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 292 The Journal Previously, students Once reading comprehension could decode, was considered comprehension was of Experimental Education to be a process of mastery: assumed to occur automatical ly (Dole, 2000). Research, however, has shown that good readers are character ized by more than just decoding skills. Cognitively based views of reading com readers use a flexible that proficient repertoire of prehension emphasize and regulating activities (Dole, Duffy, Roehler, comprehension monitoringÃ includes both cognitive and metacognitive Pearson, 1991), which strategies (Baker Brown, 1984; Paris, Wasik, Turner, 1991; Pressley Allington, 1999; Pressley, Johnson, Symons, McGoldrick, Kurita, 1989). Cognitive strat egies can be defined as mental or behavioral activities that increase the likelihood such as rereading, activating prior background knowledge, of comprehension, and adjusting reading speed (Van Den Broek Kremer, 2000). Metacognitive strategies can be specified as self-monitoring and regulating activities that focus on the product and the process of reading, supportÃ readers awareness of com prehension, and assist in the selection of cognitive strategies as a function of text difficulty, situational constraints, and the readers own cognitive abilities (Lories, 1998; Van Den Broek Kremer; Weisberg, Dardenne, Yzerbyt, 1988). There is no reason to believe that all elementary students spon Unfortunately, and skills knowledge taneously develop essential cognitive and metacognitive Research reviews, however, reveal Allington, 1999). (Hartman, 2001; Pressley that monitoring and regulating skills and effective application of relevant strate canÃ gies be taught (Dole et al. , 1991; Pressley, 2000; Pressley et al. , 1989). In this Jones, 1992; Block, 1993; respect, recent studies (Baumann, Seifert-Kessell, Dole et al. ; Dole, Brown, Thrathen, 1996; Pearson Fielding, 1991) and re of the National Reading Council (U. S. ; Snow et al. , 1998) underscore the ports value of explicit cognitive and metacognitive reading strategy instruction, for instruction takes the mystery out of the reading process, helping comprehension students assume control (Raphael, 2000, p. 76). As to the practice of teaching observation reÃ reading, however, little has changed since Durkins (1978-1979) instruction. The dominant instructional practice is into comprehension students about text content, still very traditional, characterized by questioning with little explicit attention to the strategic aspects of processing and compre hending text (Aarnoutse, 1995; Paris Oka, 1986; Pressley, Wharton-McDon 1986). ald, Hampston, Echevarr? a, 1998; Weterings Aarnoutse, search In addition to the importance of explicit reading strategies instruction, research the effects program of an innovativeÃ on the cognitive, and social, (Belgium) comprehension for reading The study was school children. emotional by a supported of elementary development Research-Flanders. Research grant of the Fund for Scientific Assistantship to: Hilde Van Keer, Department be addressed should of Education, Correspondence Hilde. VanKeer E-mail: Henri Dunantlaan Ghent Ghent, 2, 9000 Belgium. University, This study was part of a investigation long-term in Flanders instruction of @ UGent. Be This content downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 01:52:54 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and ConditionsÃ 293 Van Keer Verhaeghe has revealed that the development of reading competence in the elementary can be encouraged by interaction with peers (Almasi, 1996; Fuchs, Fuchs, grades Mathes, Simmons, 1997; Johnson-Glenberg, 2000; Mathes Fuchs, 1994; Mathes, Torgesen, Allor, 2001; Palincsar Brown, 1984; Rosenshine Meis ter, 1994; Simmons, Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes, Hodge, 1995). The traditional teacher-led evaluation interaction seems of pattern teacher question-student an to achieve insufficient actual response-teacher increase in comprehension,Ã higher level cognition, and the application of self-regulation strategies (Cazden, 1986). Relying on the teachers interpretive authority causes students to become passive learners. to become Conversely, students readers, self-regulated need to take an active role and to recognize and resolve their own discrepancies with texts (Almasi; Gourgey, 2001). Research has demonstrated that this kind of ac tive reading behavior is promoted by providing students with opportunities to en gage in peer-led interaction about texts. More particularly, it has been shown that, throughÃ students discussions, peer implement, conferences, evaluate, and peer modify and tutoring, strategies, activities, cooperative and discuss of transfer strategies (Klingner Vaughn, 1996; Klingner, Vaughn, Schumm, 1998; Pal incsar Brown, 1984). Moreover, discussions between peers provide opportu nities for metacognitive (Palincsar, David, Winn, exchanges and modeling 1991). In this way, childrens knowledge about reading and reading strategies, as well as their ability to apply relevant strategies, increases. Despite these convincing research results, student-centeredÃ discussion with regard to is anything but common practice in most classrooms reading comprehension Stevens, (Alvermann, 2000). In the present study, we attempted to narrow the gap between prevailing in structional practice and research evidence in the field of reading comprehension instruction. An innovative approach, blending research-based strategies instruction and to practice opportunities strategic the from practices research fields, was designed, aforementioned implemented, More specifically, the innovations comprised two cornerstones: and evaluated. explicit readingÃ reading in peer-tu toring dyads. Peer tutoring was introduced to stimulate student interaction be cause of the opportunities it creates to practice metacognitive skills. It should be noted that studies of peer tutoring in reading comprehension and thinking skills are relatively rare (Topping, 2001). Following research on peer-assisted learning strategies (e. g. , Fuchs, Fuchs, et al. , Mathes, 1997), c? as s wide peer tutoring (e. g. , Greenwood, 1991; Greenwood, Carta, Hall, 1988), and studies focusing on practicing reading strategies in small cooperative groups (e.g. , Brown, Pressley, Van Meter, Schuder, 1996; Palincsar Brown, 1984; Pressley et al, 1992; Stevens, Madden, Slavin, Famish, 1987; Stevens, Slavin, Famish, 1991), the present study involved training in comprehension strategies rather than tutoring students in word-level oral reading or low-level comprehension activities. Peer tutoring can be defined as people from similar social groupings who are This content downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 01:52:54 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 294. The Journal of Experimental Education not professionalÃ teachers helping each other to leam, and learning themselves by teaching (Topping, 1996, p. 322). This definition covers a series of practices, in cluding peers as one-on-one teachers to provide individualized instruction, prac tice, repetition, and clarification of concepts (Topping, 1988; Utley Mortweet, 1997). Peer tutoring is structurally embedded in the curriculum and classroom organization and is characterized by specific role taking: One person has the job of tutor, while the other is the tutee (Topping, 1996). Moreover, effective peer tu tutor training (Bentz Fuchs, 1996;toring is characterized by a preceding Fuchs, Fuchs, Bentz, Phillips, Hamlett, 1994; Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, Phillips, Karns, Dutka, 1997). With regard to the dyad composition, two variants can be tutoring refers to older students tutoring younger stu distinguished. Cross-age in same-age tutoring, children are paired with classmates. The variant in dents; students alternate regularly between the tutor and tutee role is called rec iprocal same-age tutoring (Fantuzzo, King, Heller, 1992). Peer tutoring has been successful in a variety of curriculum areas and age groups. Research has indicated positive effects on academic achievement for both tutor and tutee (Cohen, Kulik, Kulik, 1982; Fantuzzo, Davis, Ginsburg, 1995; which Fantuzzo, Polite, Grayson, 1990; Fantuzzo et al. , 1992; Greenwood et al. , 1988; Mathes et al. , 2001 ;Simmons et al. , 1995). In this respect, peer tutoring is not only about transmission from the more able and experienced to the less able (Topping, 1996); tutors seem to benefit even more from tutoring than students who receive et al. ; Lambiotte et al. , the individual tuition (Fitz-Gibbon, 1988; Greenwood 1987). This can be explained by the nature of tutoring a peer: Tutors are chal to engage in ac lenged to consider the subject fully from different perspectives, to identify and correct errors, to reorganize and clarify their own tive monitoring knowledge and understandings, and to elaborate on information in their explana tions (Fuchs Fuchs, 2000). Because the application of reading strategies re quires actively monitoring the reading process, peer tutoring may be considered a powerful learning environment for the acquisition of reading comprehension the reading process of another reader might facilitate the ac skills. Monitoring of self-monitoring skills and, hence, the adequate application of reading quisition (1978) the strategies. From a theoretical perspective, consistent with Vygotskys ory of socially mediated learning, the object of the dyadic interaction in the peer tutoring activities is the joint construction of text meaning by appropriate appli cation of relevant reading strategies to a wide range of texts and, in the long term, the intemalization and consistently self-regulative flexible use of strategic pro cessing whenever encountering texts that are challenging to comprehend. Furthermore, positive effects also have been found on tutors and tutees social and emotional functioning, especially with regard to self-efficacy perceptions, self-concepts, social relationships, and attitudes toward the curriculum areas treated in the tutoring sessions (e. g. , Cohen et al. , 1982; Fantuzzo et al. , 1992; Fantuzzo et al. , 1995; Greenwood et al. , 1988; Mathes Fuchs, 1994). Regard This content downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 01:52:54 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 295 Van Keer Verhaeghe is an especially self-efficacyÃ important construct, ing reading comprehension, that attention to strategy instruction alone is not sufficient to produce max given imum reading growth (Casteel, Isom, Jordan, 2000). Affective factors result in deeper engagement with text, which translates into superior achievement. Henk and Melnick (1995) asserted that self-efficacy judgments can affect an individ uals overall orientation to the process of reading; influence choice of activities; affect continued involvement, amount of effort expended during reading, and the in pursuing text comprehension; And ultimately affect degree of persistence achievement. Our aim in the present intervention study was to design, implement, and evalu ate complex sets of instructional interventions in authentic classrooms to enhance second and fifth graders reading comprehension achievement and self-efficacy perceptions toward reading. The specific contribution of the present study is the focus on peer-tutoring variants as instructional techniques to practice the use of reading. More strategies. comprehension we specifically, concentrated on an ex of practicing reading strategies in (a)Ã plicit comparison teacher-led whole-class activities, (b) reciprocal same-age peer-tutoring activities, or (c) cross-age peer-tutoring activities within the same study for two different age groups. So far, cross- and same-age tutoring have not been compared within the same study, and there is only indirect reference material from themeta-analysis of of the relative merit Cohen and colleagues (1982) with regard to the differential impact. Furthermore, in the present study, we extend prior research by (a) sampling a larger number of studies; Participants than is typically the case in strategies-based comprehension (b) supporting teachers to implement the innovations in the natural classroom con text with the participation of all students of all abilities during an entire school year, which represents sensitivity to the interventions ecological validity; (c) tar geting students in the early and intermediate grades, populations that deserve more attention with regard tometacognitive and strategic behavior; (d) including maintenance long-term measures; (e) using standardized reading comprehension tests not directly linked to the treatment; and (f) applying multilevel modeling toÃ take the hierarchical nesting of students in classes into account. Based on a review of the research literature and the aforementioned lines of reasoning, we formulated the following hypotheses for the study: Hypothesis teacher-led 1. Explicit whole-class reading or peer-tutoring graders reading comprehension prehension strategies instruction, activities, achievement more followed enhances by practice second and in fifth than traditional reading com instruction. 2. Practicing reading strategies in cross-age or reciprocal same-age peer-tutoring activities generates larger positive changes in second and fifthÃ Hypothesis graders during comprehension whole-class achievement than more traditional activities. This content downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 01:52:54 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions teacher-led practice 296 The Journal Education of Experimental is more obvious for sec 3. Improvement in reading comprehension Hypothesis ond and fifth graders functioning as tutees and tutors, respectively, in cross-age peer-tutoring activities than for their peers alternating between the tutor and tutee roles in reciprocal same-age activities. Hypothesis 4. Cross-age and reciprocal same-age peer-tutoring activities second and fifth graders self-efficacy perceptions toward reading more ditional teacher-led instructional techniques. improve than tra 5. Improvement in self-efficacy perceptions toward reading is more Hypothesis obvious for second and fifth graders functioning as tutees and tutors, respective ly, in cross-age peer-tutoring activities than for their peers alternating roles in activities. same-age reciprocal Method Design We used a pretest, posttest, and retention test control group design. To ensure the ecological validity of the interventions, we included complete naturally com posed classes. Participating classes were assigned to one of four research condi tions. In the strategies-only condition (STRAT), the experimental intervention in cluded explicit reading strategies instruction, followed by practice in teacher-led whole-class settings. The experimental same-age (STRAT + SA) and cross-age included identical instruction in the (STRAT + CA) peer-tutoring conditions same cross-age dyads, or cross-age with combined strategies, In this respectively.Ã tutoring. Finally, class-wide we respect, included practice students a control in reciprocal experienced either characterized group, or same-age same by tra activities without explicit strategies instruction ditional reading comprehension or peer tutoring. Classes were randomly assigned to the STRAT or tutoring con ditions. Within the tutoring conditions, teachers opted in favor of the STRAT + SA or STRAT + CA condition according to the readiness of a colleague to col laborate in the STRAT + CA activities. We selected control group classes to match the experimental teachersÃ and classes. Because the classes were naturally composed and the assignment of classes to the conditions was not completely randomized, the design can be regarded as quasi-experimental. Participants In total, 444 second and 454 fifth graders from 44 classes in 25 different schools throughout Flanders (Belgium) participated in the study. Except for some small-scale initiatives of individual schools, peer tutoring was fairly unfamiliar at the time of the study. Other cooperative or interactive techniques, such as This content downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 01:52:54 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 297 Van Keer Verhaeghe and circle time, were better known and more group work, group discussion, fre used. quently Except for one inner-city school in the STRAT condition with mainly a low so status and ethnic minority population, all schools had a predomi cioeconomic Flemish population. The majority of the children were from middle nantly white, class families. Except for one second-grade class including only girls, there was approximately an equal gender distribution: In second- and fifth-grade classes, on = = 18.55) of the students were boys. At 16. 54) and 48% (SD average, 53% (SD the beginning of the school year, second graders were aged, on average, 7 years and 4 months, and fifth graders were aged, on average, 10 years and 5 months. The majority of the students (402 in second and 422 in fifth grade) were native speakers. Because elementary school students in Flanders are not grouped by ability, classes are considered academically heterogeneous, which was con firmed by the pretest reading comprehension measures. Class size ranged from 15 to 28 students, with an average of approximately 21 (SD = 3.50) in the second grade, and from 10 to 30 students in the fifth grade, with an average of approxi = mately 22 (SD 5. 00) students per class. Second- and fifth-grade teachers had, on Dutch average, 11 and 20 years of teaching experience, respectively. Four of 22 second grade and 5 of 22 fifth-grade teachers were men. None of the teachers had previ ous experience in explicit reading strategies instruction or peer tutoring. We selected participating teachers from a group of approximately 100 second and fifth-grade teachers who were willing to take part in a long-term research study. All interested teachers received a questionnaire concerning their teaching practices and opinions regarding learning and instruction. The first step in the teacher-selection we selected ative and interactive to pace according was procedure student-oriented instructional or content. who Furthermore, of the schools of matching and classes this specifically, in applying experienced cooper and able to build in differentiation we based the throughout Flanders with More questionnaire. were techniques graphical distribution teachers on based teachers regard to selection on the geo and on the possibility teachers teachingÃ experience, beliefs, and instructional practice; class size; students age; gender distribution; and dominating mother tongue. Table 1 shows the number of participating class es and students Measurement per condition. Instruments study, we used standardized tests to measure students reading achievement and decoding fluency. We administered question comprehension naires with respect to reading attitude, perceived competence, and preoccupation with attributions and self-efficacy perceptions toward reading. In the present Reading tests. We comprehension using Dutch standardized measured test batteries readingÃ comprehension (Staphorsius Krom, This content downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 01:52:54 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions achievement 1996; Verhoeven, 298 The Journal TABLE 1. Number of Participating Education of Experimental Classes and Students Grade Fifth Second Condition Classes STRAT + SA STRAT + CA STRAT Control 6 5 Note. cross-age 163 124 444 22 = explicit whole-class STRAT teacher-led peer-tutoring 22 101 69 177 107 454 66 8 Students 91 3 group Total Classes Students reading comprehension strategies instruction followed by practice in = activities; SA activities; CA = same-age peer-tutoringÃ reciprocal activities. 1993), which were selected based on the tests well-established psychometric the built-in adaptation to different student abilities, and the fact characteristics, that the tests address aspects of comprehension covered by the strategies part of occasion, we administered the experimental program. At each measurement with an increasing level of difficulty. The questions tiple-choice tence, the referral contained pretest second-grade asking relation for between short six the meaning words, stories, of each a word, the connection followed the meaning between by of sentences, tests 5 mulÃ a sen and the theme of a text. We determined the scores by the number of correct answers. The second-grade post- and retention tests consisted of four and three different stories, respectively, each followed by 4 to 10 multiple-choice questions, with a total of 25 questions per test. More specifically, questions concerning the content of a text (demanding a clear understanding of the meaning of words and sen tences, the referral relation between words, the connection between sentences, and the theme of the text) and questions concerning the communication between the author and the reader of the text (e.g. , objective of the author, intended target group, the authors attitude toward the matter raised) could be distinguished. Both types of questions required integration of information on different textual levels (words, sentences, paragraphs, text) and were more or less equally distrib uted over the 25 questions per text. After discussing an example, students com pleted the tests individually. To examine the tests internal consistency, Cron bachs a coefficients were calculated on our own data, yielding high reliability scores of . 90 (n = 432) for the pretest, . 84 (n = All) for the posttest, and . 83 (n = 385) for the retention test. In fifth grade, the tests consisted of three modules of 25 multiple-choice ques tions each. All students took the first module of the test. Depending on these first This content downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 01:52:54 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 299 Van Keer Verhaeghe results, students further completed an easier or more difficult module. Two types of questions requiring the integration of information on different textual levels could be distinguished: questions concerning the content and questions concern ing the communication the authorÃ between and the reader. an After stu example, dents completed the tests individually. Scores were determined by summing the correct answers. For the reading comprehension test, IRT-modeled scores were on Item Response Theory (IRT), a common scale had been de available: Based allowing us to veloped for different grades and test versions (easy-difficult), or more difficult part of the test. Because they are all on the compare the easier same scale, the IRT-modeled scores also allow for direct comparison of the re occasions. To verify the relia sults a student obtained at different measurementÃ bility of the three modules of the pre-, post-, and retention tests, we computed Cronbachs a coefficients on our own data. Table 2 indicates that reliability of all measures comprehension was acceptable. test. We included second graders decoding fluency, which is a Decoding fluency combination of accuracy and decoding speed (Chard, Simmons, Kameenui, 1998), as an additional variable, because fluency can be considered a mediating factor on students reading comprehension achievement (Pressley, 2000). A stan dardized test (Brus, 1969) was administered individually toÃ all second graders; students were asked to read unrelated words with an increasing level of difficul ty during exactly 1min. The score was determined by counting the number of words read correctly. We collected fluency data in second-grade classes only be cause it is recognized that reading fluency is generally well developed at the end of the third grade (Bast Reitsma, 1998; Sticht James, 1984) and because it was too time to test consuming all fifth graders as well. individually on self-efficacy perceptions and related causal attributions. With QuestionnaireÃ in the framework of the present study, we developed a questionnaire to measure TABLE a Coefficients 2. Cronbachs Comprehension for the Fifth-Grade Reading Tests Measurement occasion Posttest Pretest Test module n n an a .81 1 .76 2 3 .66 Note. At each measurement used. 468 167 271 occasion a different Retention test a .72 .76 .74 test with 442 256 175 an increasing This content downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 01:52:54 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .76 .79 .77 41 level of difficulty 403 362 was 300. The Journal Education of ExperimentalÃ students preoccupation with positive or negative thoughts or related causal attri butions with regard to their reading ability. Inspired by the work of Ames (1984), we asked children to report how often such thoughts crossed their mind before, during, or after reading. Factor analysis revealed that success attributions and positive thoughts about ones own reading competence on the one hand and fail ure attributions and negative self-efficacy perceptions on the other hand are very (1984) and closely related. This result is in line with the findings of Marsh and Debus (1984), who stated that self-attribuÃ Marsh, Cairns, Relich, Barnes, can tions seen be as or expressions indicators ones of or self-concept self-effi we constructed two scales reflecting negative and cacy perceptions. Therefore, about ones own reading abilities. It should be positive thoughts, respectively, noted that capturing the incidence of self-efficacy-related thoughts does not give a direct measure of students self-efficacy perception but rather indicates the de a student is preoccupied with such thoughts. In this respect, related to (meta)cognitive activity than data collected gree to which data are more means the directly of moreÃ traditional a However, questionnaires. self-concept by inci high dence of negative self-efficacy-related thoughts can be considered an indication of a low self-efficacy perception, but such a conclusion cannot be drawn from a low incidence of positive self-efficacy-related thoughts. The latter suggests only that the student is not preoccupied with thoughts about reading proficiency or success. We administered read graders and completed at each the questionnaire the questionnaire measurement occasion. In individually. second Fifth all grade, items were read out loud to and judged individually by the students. As can be seen in Table 3, reliability was high for the negative subscale, but it was somewhat lower for the positive subscale. To investigate the validity of the both questionnaire, TABLE scales were correlated a Coefficients 3. Cronbachs Preoccupation With Attributions with for the scholastic the Questionnaire Measurement 2nd grade Success Concerning occasion attributions negative 2nd grade 5th grade and self-efficacy perceptions Failure Posttest 5th grade anananan scale attributions positive sub and Self-Efficacy Perceptions Pretest Questionnaire competence .63 419 .69 441 .75 402 .71 426 367 .83 408 .84 368 .81 393 and self-efficacy perceptions .77 This content downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 01:52:54 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 301 Van Keer Verhaeghe scale of a Dutch Profile for Children (Harter, version of the Self-Perception 1985). These analyses revealed that both positive and negative self-efficacy per ceptions were significantly (p 0. 01) correlated with the scholastic self-concept subscale with r = -. 40 (pretest) and r = -. 37 (posttest) for the negative self-effi = . 22 = . 19 cacy subscale and r (posttest) for the positive self-efÃ (pretest) and r subscale. ficacy scale. Although we mainly focused on students self-effi cacy perceptions directly related to reading activities, we administered an exist (Veerman, Straathof, Treffers, Van den Bergh, ing self-concept questionnaire ten Brink, 1997), which is a Dutch version of the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985). Because the questionnaire was not appropriate for sec Perceived competence ond graders, we used the instrument with the fifth-grade group only. To verify the reliability of the different scales, we computed Cronbachs a coefficients. As can be seen in Table 4, the reliability of the measures was acceptable. As to the ques tionnaires validity, Veerman and colleagues investigations into the validity of self-report reported that, compared with other scales, the validity can be judged as moderate. Reading attitude scale. Both second and fifth graders completed a Dutch Read ing Attitude Scale (Aarnoutse, 1996) at the pre- and posttest. Fifth graders read and completed the questionnaire individually.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Fundamentals of Volleyball Volleyball was originally meant for middle-aged men who werenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to move well enough to play basketball, but now it is a fast-paced and highly competitive sport for both men and women. Today, people dive and leap across the floor in order to keep the ball from hitting the ground on their side of the court. So it is safe to say that the game of volleyball has evolved from the relatively calm game it once was when it originated in Holyoke, Massachusetts in 1895. The fundamentals of volleyball include passing, digging, serving, attacking, setting, and blocking. It also involves the skills needed to do these things. Volleyball was invented by William G. Morgan. Morgan wanted to come up with an indoor sport that was better accustomed to the fitness level of older men. He invented the sport by looking at elements of other sports (basketball, baseball, tennis, and handball) and assorted them together to fit his needs. Volleyball was initially played with an inflated basketball bladder (the inner lining of the ball). However, Morgan found that this was too light and a normal basketball was too heavy. It was eventually decided that the ball would be a rubber bladder covered with leather or canvas. In the beginning, Morgan called the new game Ã¢â¬Å"mintonetteÃ¢â¬ because it reminded him of badminton. According to Sherrow, Ã¢â¬Å"He presented an exhibition match for a group of YMCA physical education directors. One spectator, Dr. Alfred Halsted, suggested that Morgan change the name of the game from Ã¢â¬Å"mintonetteÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"volley ball,Ã¢â¬ because the players were volleying the ball b ack and forth with each hit. The first official volleyball game was played at Springfield College on July 7, 1896Ã¢â¬ (14). Formerly, the game was organiz... ...see how all of the fundamentals come back together to compliment each other and form the game of volleyball. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Basic Skills in Volleyball.Ã¢â¬ Basic Skills in Volleyball . N.p., n.d. Web. 30 April 2014 Kelly, Zachary A. Volleyball, Attacking to Win. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke, 1998. Print. Kelly, Zachary A. VolleyballÃ¢â¬âthe Serve. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke, 1998. Print. Ã¢â¬Å"Rules of the Game of Volleyball.Ã¢â¬ Rules of the Game of Volleyball. Volleyball World Wide, n.d. Web. 01 May 2014 Sherrow, Victoria. Volleyball. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 2002. Print. Ã¢â¬Å"Special Olympics Oregon- Training for Life.Ã¢â¬ Special Olympics Oregon- Training for Life. Special Olympic Oregon, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2014. "TriState VolunteersÃ ®: About/Home." TriState VolunteersÃ ®: About/Home. Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association, n.d. Web. 30 April 2014.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Honor Killings of Muslim Women Introduction Killings in the name of honor are undoubtedly a disaster, an unlawful act, a terror against humanity. Honor Killings of Muslim women is an antique trend followed in Islam in which male members of family and social community deliberately kill women and girls of their family or tribes as a result of belief that they have conducted any shameful act and ruined the reputation of family or tribe. Honor Killings in Muslims has been inherited from the ancient tribal days of 1200 BC when no major religion was came into being thus honor killing has no direct relation to Religion.The concept of Honor Killings has developed as a result of several attitudes in culture based on classes and background, and religious groups, where women is considered as a property of men and possess no rights. The alleged degradation is mostly based upon suspicions only and these suspicious behaviors include unacceptable style of dressing, willingly marrying anyone by own choice particularly with someone who belongs to opposing community or tribe, conducting immoral sexual acts, or even engaging in homosexual acts.Statistics show that about 20000 women become victim of honor killing every year particularly in Asia and Middle East (Fisk. R. , 2010, n. d. ). Honor Killing in the name of religion is the most hideous crimes and it is still occurring in most part of the worlds due to perceived shameful acts in the eyes of men and such tragic events have very valuable lesson in it for the educated and mature people. DiscussionPakistan, the Islamic republic country, is deliberated as one of the most harmful and dangerous country for women to live in because of growing rate of crime in form of honor killing and other related valiances. According to a survey conducted in this regard, it was discovered that Pakistan was the fifth largest country in which women were killed for dowry and honor. Islam and law both prohibits in punishing victims unless there sin i s proved and honor killings take place on the basis of doubts and suspicions of men and groups.On the contrary Islam teaches to avoid punishment if there is a scope and does not consider pregnancy as an evidence of shameful sexual act. This is unfortunate that such terrible acts are false fully supported by few Islamic scholars who tend to justify these activates with respect to Islam. For instance; as per the saying of the Messenger of God in Islam that one should stop the crime with his own hands if he/she see it happening. These kinds of statements are misperceived by these scholars and play a vital role in encouraging honor killings of Women.These scholars promote the point of view of taking law into hands and treating women as an object (Mufti. N. M. et al. , 2012, pp. 180-185). One of the popular examples set by the honor-killing victim named as Mukhtar Mai from Punjab, Pakistan, whose brother was claimed of raping a girl from upper caste family, thus, it was decided by the tr ibe to punish her bother in form of a revenge in which Mukhtar Mai was raped by a gang in order to satisfy the other party and then was forced to commit suicide, so that her family restore their pride and honor.But Mukhtar Mai decided not to kill her self rather to fight against injustice. She belonged to a poor and illiterate culture, which was a real hindrance in her case and today she is running a school for women to educate them to raise voice against honor killings and injustice. She is a true figure for women in Pakistan who have been gang raped, spoiled faces with acid, and ripped nose as a result of Honor killingsÃ¢â¬â¢ activities (Parker. H. , 2007, pp. 507-508).As per statistics, 300 women were found to be killed for honor in 1997 in Pakistan, 23 murders on average are done for sake of honor in Jordon every year, 36 honor crimes were occurred in Lebanon from 1996 to 1998 in small cities and villages, 400 women were murdered in Yemen and 52 such crimes were reported in Eg ypt in 1997. Whereas, acid attacks increased from 47 to 200 in Bangladesh and 5000 women are murdered by their in laws per year in India as a result of Honor Killings.Honor Crimes are also witnessed in European and Western CountriesÃ¢â¬â¢ Immigrants communities. Because many women are unable to communicate to the state authority of the honor abuses due to linguistic issues. Such list of countries includes Germany, Sweden, Turkey, and UK. For instance, UK has witnessed 20 such deaths of women in the past five years due to honor crimes. India is a country which has sever traditions that are practiced even to date these include burning brides for sake of dowry, acid attacks, rapes and gang rapes, sexual harassments, illing and raping young girls etc and these apply to both Muslim and Hindu women in their culture. No matter how modernize a women becomes, but such kind of norm against women hardly changes (Tripathi. A. & Yadav. S. , 2005, pp. 63-78). Lessons Learned It is understood th at people who indulge into Honor killings of Women and girls have emotional attachment with their views, belief, culture and religion. They consider such issues as a matter of pride and respect. In order to hinder such acts I believe one has to take serious actions.According to my knowledge and understanding about the underlined topic, publishing and distributing actual Islamic sayings with references can reduce honor killings, more education should be given to people from all classes that marrying some one willingly is not a reason to kill anyone, print media and television should broadcasts open debates on these issues which are often avoided as a taboo, I believe one can use the mosque (A religious place of worship for Muslims) as a platform to educate illiterate people and notify them that itÃ¢â¬â¢s a crime, Government itself should contribute and initiate movements against such acts wherever honor killings are taken place in Muslim World. I believe it is everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s res ponsibility to stop this activity and nip the evil in the bud wherever witnessed for sake of saving humanity and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights (Mufti. N. M. et al. , 2012, pp. 180-185). I believe such victims in case of survival should be provided with psychological rehabilitation and mental support.Encouraging people who so ever witness these crimes to report immediately to the concerned authority. Government should provide financial aid to NGOs who are continuously working for this cause. Both boys and girls should be educated about equal human rights from the childhood (Tripathi. A. & Yadav. S. , 2005, pp. 63-78). Conclusion Honor Killings of Muslim women in the name of religion is just a means of escape for men, communities, tribal groups who believe in their so called norms, culture, tradition and values. Such terrible acts occur in almost every country where Muslims with conservative thinking are residing and they believe that women are just n object whose activities may affect their reputation severely.These acts should be stopped by law and religious teachings. Concerned authorities should take serious actions against criminals involved in honor killing and punish them strictly. Works Cited Fist. R. The Crime wave that shames the world. The Independent. (2010) Web. 11 Oct. 2012. < http://www. independent. co. uk> Mufti. N. M. et al. Honor Killing in Pakistan: An Islamic Perspective. Asian Social Science. vol 8 no. (10) (2012) pp. 180-185 Parker. H. Reviews: Killing Women for honor. Contemporary Review. (2007) pp. 507-508. Tripathi. A. & Yadav. S. For the Sake of honor: But Whose Honor? Honor Crimes Against Women. Asia Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law. vol 2 (2005) pp. 63-78.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
This study estimates and forecasts the demand for synthetic (mineral oils and chemical oils) and bio-based lubricants in the global market. Synthetic lubricants market has been segmented on the basis of various products including industrial, consumer automotive and commercial automotive lubricants. This segmentation has also been analyzed on a regional level, providing data for North America, Europe and Asia Pacific. Bio-based lubricants market has been segmented on the basis of applications such as hydraulic oil, chainsaw oil, turbine oil, metal working oil and so on. Biolubricant demand has also been segmented on the basis of end-use industries such as commercial and consumer automotives. The study analyzes the entire lubricant industry from the demand perspective and market data for all segmentations is provided both in terms of volumes and revenues with forecast for the period from 2013 to 2018. Various synthetic lubricant products analyzed in this study include process oils, general industrial oils, hydraulic & transmission fluid, passenger vehicle engine & motor oil, metal working fluids, heavy-duty engine oil, gear oil and grease. Bio-based lubricants have also been analyzed from raw material perspective, with estimates for vegetable oil-based and animal oil based lubes. The bio-based lubricant market by applications can be mainly divided into automotive, hydraulic, process, demolding, chainsaw, compressor, turbine, industrial gear, metal working oils and lubricating greases. The economies covered in this report are North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World (ROW). This report also includes Porters five forces model and the market share of major companies in 2011. A market attractiveness profile has also been provided for bio-based lubricants which would assist in product development and specifications. Some of the key players that deal in synthetic and bio-based lubricants include Royal Dutch Shell, Exxon Mobil, British Petroleum, Chevron, Castrol, Fuchs and Total. The top 20 market participants have been profiled in this study, including data such as recent developments, financial performance, and product lines and so on.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Multiplexing and Data Rate Essays Multiplexing and Data Rate Essay Multiplexing and Data Rate Essay Multiplexing CHAPTER 4 Outline * Frequency Division Multiplexing(FDM) * Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing * Statistical Time Division Multiplexing * Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line(ADSL) Multiplexing * Set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single link * allows several transmission sources to share a larger transmission capacity Link = physical path Channel = portion of a link that carries a transmission between a given pairs of lines 2 CATEGORY OF MULTIPLEXING WDM FDM TDM ADSL Frequency Division Multiplexing * FDM Ã¢â¬â numerous signals are combined for ransmission on a single communications line or channel. Each signal is assigned a different frequency (subchannel) within the main channel. * Useful bandwidth of medium exceeds required bandwidth of channel * e. g. broadcast radio and cable television * Channel allocated even if no data Frequency Division Multiplexing Diagram * Each signal is modulat ed to a different carrier frequency * Carrier frequencies separated by guard bands (unused bandwidth) Ã¢â¬â to prevent interference so signals do not overlap. 3 FDM System FDM is an analog multiplexing technique that combines signals. FDM process FDM Demultiplexing Example 1 Assume that a voice channel occupies a bandwidth of 4 KHz. We need to combine three voice channels into a link with a bandwidth of 12 KHz, from 20 to 32 KHz. Show the configuration using the frequency domain without the use of guard bands. Solution Shift (modulate) each of the three voice channels to a different bandwidth, as shown in next figure Example 2 Five channels, each with a 100-KHz bandwidth, are to be multiplexed together. What is the minimum bandwidth of the link if there is a need for a guard band of 10 KHz between the channels to prevent interference? Solution For five channels, we need at least four guard bands. This means that the required bandwidth is at least 5 x 100 + 4 x 10 = 540 KHz, as shown in next Figure. Example 3 Four data channels (digital), each transmitting at 1 Mbps, use a satellite channel of 1 MHz. Design an appropriate configuration using FDM Solution The satellite channel is analog. We divide it into four channels, each channel having a 250-KHz bandwidth. Each digital channel of 1 Mbps is modulated such that each 4 bits are modulated to 1 Hz. One solution is 16- QAM modulation. Figure 6. 8 shows one possible configuration. Analog Carrier Systems ATT (USA) * Hierarchy of FDM schemes * Group 1. 12 voice channels (4kHz each) = 48kHz 2. Range 60kHz to 108kHz * Supergroup 1. 60 channel 2. FDM of 5 group signals on carriers between 420kHz and 612 kHz * Mastergroup 1. 10 supergroups Analog Hierarchy To maximize the efficiency infrastructure, multiplexed signals from lower bandwidth lines onto higher-bandwidth signals FDM of Th ree Voiceband Signals FDM Applications 1. Common used radio broadcasting AM and FM * AM (530 Ã¢â¬â 1700KHz) Ã¢â¬â shared with all radio stations * FM uses a wider band (88 Ã¢â¬â 108MHz) Ã¢â¬â each station needs more bandwidth, 200KHz 2. Television Broadcasting * Each TV channel has own bandwidth of 6 Mhz 3. 1st Generation of Cellular telephones * Voice signal 3KHz (300 Ã¢â¬â 3300Hz) channels * Bt = 10 x Bm , therefore each channel has 30KHz channels * each user has been allocated two 30KHz channel, therefore 60KHz. Example 4 The Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) uses two bands. The first band, 824 to 849 MHz, is used for sending; and 869 to 894 MHz is used for receiving. Each user has a bandwidth of 30 KHz in each direction. The 3 5 Four 1-Kbps connections are multiplexed together. A unit is 1 bit. Find : (1) the duration of 1 bit before multiplexing, (2) the transmission rate of the link, (3) the duration of a time slot, and (4) the duration of a frame? Solution We can answer the questions as follows: 1. The duration of 1 bit is 1/1 Kbps, or 0. 001 s (1 ms). 2. The rate of the link is 4 Kbps. 3. The duration of each time slot 1/4 ms or 250 ms. 4. The duration of a frame 1 ms. Interleaving switches are synchronized and rotate at the same speed but opposite direction process of sending a unit data onto the path when the connection on the multiplexing and de 6 Four channels are multiplexed using TDM. If each channel sends 100 bytes/s and we multiplex 1 byte per channel, show the frame traveling on the link, the size of the frame, the duration of a frame, the frame rate, and the bit rate for the link. Solution The multiplexer is shown in Figure 6 Example 7 A multiplexer combines four 100 8 We have four sources, each creating 250 characters per second. If the interleaved unit is a character and 1 synchronizing bit is added to each frame, find (1) the data rate of each source, (2) the duration of each character in each source, (3) the frame rate, (4) the duration of each frame, (5) the number of bits in each frame, and (6) the data rate of the link. Solution Answer as follows: 1. The data rate of each source is 250 x 8 = 2000 bps = 2 Kbps. 2. The duration of a character is 1/250 s = 4 ms. 3. The link needs to send 250 frames per second. 4. The duration of each frame is 1/250 = 4 ms. 5. Each frame is 4 x 8 + 1 = 33 bits. 6. The data rate of the link is 250 x 33 = 8250 bps. Example 9 Two channels, one with a bit rate of 100 Kbps and another with a bit rate of 200 Kbps, are to be multiplexed. How this can be achieved? What is the frame rate? What is the frame duration? What is the bit rate of the link? Solution We can allocate one slot to the first channel and two slots to the second channel. Each frame carries 3 bits. The frame rate is 100,000 frames per second because it carries 1 bit from the first channel. The frame duration is 1/100,000 = 10 ms. The bit rate is 100,000 frames/s x 3 bits/frame = 300 Kbps. Pulse Stuffing * Problem Synchronizing various data sources * Each source has separate clock, variation among clock cause loss synchronization * Data rates from different sources not related by simple rational number * Solution Pulse Stuffing as effective remedy * Outgoing data rate (excluding framing bits) higher than sum of incoming rates * Stuff extra dummy bits or pulses into each ncoming signal until it matches local clock * Stuffed pulses inserted at fixed locations in frame and removed at demultiplexer TDM of Analog and Digital Sources Digital Carrier Systems * Long distance carrier system * Designed to transmit voice signal over high capacity transmission lonks usuch as optical fiber, coax and microwave * ATT developed hierarchy of TDM structures of various capacities * USA/Canada/Japan use one system * ITU-T use a similar (but different) system * US system based on DS-1 format which Multiplexes 24 channels * Each frame has 8 bits per channel plus one raming bit, 24 x 8 +1 =193 bits per frame Digital Carrier Systems (2) * For voice each channel contains one word of digitized data (using PCM at 8000 samples per sec) * Data rate 8000193 = 1. 544Mbps * Five out of six frames have 8 bit PCM samples * Sixth frame is 7 bit PCM word plus signaling bit * Signaling bits form stream for each channel containing control and routing info * Same format for digital data * 23 channels of data * 7 bits per frame plus indicator bit for data or systems control * 24th channel is sync DS Hierarchy TDM Carrier Standard North American and International TDM Carrier Standards Statistical TDM * In Synchronous TDM many slots are wasted * Statistical TDM allocates time slots dynamically based on demand * Multiplexer scans input lines and collects data until frame full * Data rate on line lower than aggregate rates of input lines * Improve efficiency is to allow multiple data resources to be packed in one single frame Statistical TDM Frame Formats Performance * Output data rate less than aggregate input data rates cause by average amount of input capacity of multiplexed line * Difficulty: May cause problems during peak periods when the input exceed capacity * Solution Buffer inputs to hold temporary excess input * Keep buffer size to minimum to reduce delay Cable Modem Outline * To support data transfer to and from a cable modem, two channels from cable TV provider dedicated to data transfer * One in each direction * Each channel shared by number of subscribers * Scheme needed to allocate capacity * Statistical TDM Cable Modem Operation Downstream * Cable sc heduler delivers data in small packets * If more than one subscriber active, each gets fraction of downstream capacity May get 500kbps to 1. 5Mbps * Also used to allocate upstream time slots to subscribers Upstream * User requests timeslots on shared upstream channel Dedicated slots for this * Headend scheduler sends back assignment of future time slots to subscriber Cable Modem Scheme Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line ADSL Link between subscriber and network * Local loop Uses currently installed twisted pair cable * Can carry broader spectrum * 1 MHz or more ADSL Design Asymmetric -Greater capacity downstream than upstream -Expected for video on demand and related services Ã¢â¬â high speed access -Users require higher capacity for downstream than upstream Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) element of ADSL strategy Reserve lowest 25kHz for voice Ã¢â¬â Plain old telephone service (POTS) Ã¢â¬â Voice carried only 0 Ã¢â¬â 4KHz band Ã¢â¬â Additional bandwidth for prevent crosstalk between voice and data channel Use echo cancellation or FDM to give two bands Ã¢â¬â smaller upstream band and larger downstream band Use FDM within upstream and downstream bands Ã¢â¬â Single bit stream multiple parallel bit streams Ã¢â¬â each portion carried separate frequency band Range up to 5. 5km -Depending of diameter cables and quality ADSL Channel Configuration Discrete Multitone * DMT * Use multiple carrier signals at different requencies * Sending some bits on each channel * Available transmission band =4kHz subchannels * Send test signal and use subchannels with better signal to noise ratio * ASL/DMT design employ 256 downstream subchannels at 4kHz (60kbps) * Possible to transmit at rate15. 36MHz * Impairments bring this down to 1. 5Mbps to 9Mbps DTM Bits Per Channel Allocation Each channel can carry data rate from 0-60 Kbps Shows increasing attenuation and decreasing signalto- noise ratio at higher frequencies DMT Transmitter xDSL * High data rate DSL * Single line DSL * Very high data rate DSL
Monday, October 21, 2019
Facts About the Prehistoric Xilousuchus Originally classified as a proterosuchid (and thus a close relative of the contemporary Proterosuchus) a recent analysis has located Xilousuchus much closer to the root of the archosaur family tree (the archosaurs were the family of early Triassic reptiles that gave rise to dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and crocodiles). The significance of Xilousuchus is that it dates to the very beginning of the Triassic period, about 250 million years ago, and it seems to have been one of the earliest crocodilian archosaurs, a hint that these ruling lizards split off into prehistoric crocodiles and the ancestors of the first dinosaurs (and thus of the first birds) much earlier than had previously been thought. By the way, the Asian Xilousuchus was closely related to another sailed archosaur of North America, Arizonasaurus. Why did the cat-sized XilousuchusÃ have a sail on its back? The most likely explanation is sexual selection; perhaps Xilousuchus males with bigger sails were more attractive to females during mating season, or perhaps the sail fooled predators into thinking that Xilousuchus was bigger than it was, thus sparing it from being eaten. Given its small size, though, its very unlikely that the sail of Xilousuchus served any temperate-regulation function; thats a more likely hypothesis for 500-pound reptiles like Dimetrodon, which needed to heat up quickly during the day and dissipate excess heat at night. Whatever the case, the lack of any sailed crocodiles in the later fossil record hints that this structure wasnt crucial for the survival of this widespread family. Fast Facts AboutÃ XilousuchusÃ Name:Ã Xilousuchus (Greek for Xilou crocodile); pronounced ZEE-loo-SOO-kussHabitat:Ã Swamps of eastern AsiaHistorical Period:Ã Early Triassic (250 million years ago)Size and Weight:Ã About three feet long and 5 to 10 poundsDiet:Ã Small animalsDistinguishing Characteristics:Ã Small size; sail on back
Sunday, October 20, 2019
How to Email Professors at Prospective Grad Schools As an applicant to graduate school you have probably wondered more than once exactly what professors look for when they select students. WouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t it be easier if you could just ask them? Before you go any further, let me warn you that emails can backfire. Many applicants email professors at graduate programs they wish to attend and receive terse replies, or perhaps most commonly, no replies. For example, consider this question from a reader: I am trying to figure out a topic that would be most suitable for me. I have reached out to many professors with little luck. Occasionally, they will share articles, but rarely will I get a response to a question. My questions range from graduate opportunities to specifics about their work.Ã This readerÃ¢â¬â¢s experience is not unusual.Ã So what gives? Are graduate professors simply rude? Perhaps, but also consider the following contributors to the poor responses from faculty. Figuring out What You Want to Study Is Your Job First and foremost, it seems that this reader needs to do more work before contacting prospective mentors. As an applicant, realize that choosing a field of study is your task and one that you should do before emailing professors at graduate programs. To do so, read widely. Consider the classes youve taken and what subfields interest you. This is the most important part: Talk with faculty at your university.Ã Approach your professors for help. They should be your first line of advice in this regard. Ask Informed Questions, Not Ones Whose Answers Are Readily Available Before you email a professor for advice, Ã be sure that you have done your homework. Dont ask questions about information that you can learn from a basic internet or database search. For example, information about a professors research and copies of articles are easily available online. Likewise, dont ask questions about the graduate program unless you have carefully reviewed all of the information on both the departments website and the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s website. Professors might view answering such questions a waste of time. Moreover, asking questions about information that is readily available might signal naivetÃ © or, worse, laziness. This is not to say that you should never contact professors at prospective programs. Before you email a professor make sure that it is for the right reasons. Ask informed questions that show that you are familiar with his or her work and the program and simply seek clarification on a few specific topics.Ã Ã Three basic guidelines for emailing professors at prospective graduate programs: Do not inundate the professor with questions. Ask only one or two specific questions and you will be much more likely to get a reply than if you ask a series of questions.Be specific. Ã DonÃ¢â¬â¢t ask questions that will require more than a sentence or two in response.Ã In-depth questions about their research usually fall in this area. Remember that professors may be pressed for time. An email that looks like it will take more than a minute or two to answer may be ignored.DonÃ¢â¬â¢t ask questions that are outside of a professorÃ¢â¬â¢s purview. General questions about financial aid, how applicants are selected by the program, and housing, for example, Ã fall into this area. What should you ask prospective graduate mentors?Probably the question that you are most interested in is whether the professor is accepting students. That simple, direct, question is most likely to yield a response. How Do You Ask a Professor Whether He or She Is Taking Students? In a simple email,Ã explain that you are very interested in the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s research on X and, hereÃ¢â¬â¢s the important part, would like to know whether he or she is accepting students.Ã Keep the email brief, just a couple of sentences. A short, concise email will likely yield a response, even if it is a Ã¢â¬Å"No, I am not accepting students.Ã¢â¬ What Next? Thank the professor for his or her response, regardless. If the faculty member is accepting students then work on tailoring your application to his or her lab. Should you start a dialogue? You canÃ¢â¬â¢t predict how a professor will respond to multiple emails. Some might welcome them, but it is better playing it safe and avoid emailing the professor again unless you have specific questions about his or her research. Faculty doesnt want to mentor students who require hand-holding, and you want to avoid being perceived as needy. Should you decide to ask a specific question about his or her research, remember that brevity is key in receiving a response.
Saturday, October 19, 2019
Developing Implementation Plan Obesity in Children - Essay Example As the discussion stresses a formal approval is sought from fellow staff to seek their contributions to the study in one way or the order. Because both forms of involvements are done on a voluntary basis, it is always important that the researcher devises a strategic method in ensuring that the approvals are not declined. As part of the method of obtaining the necessary approval therefore, the researcher shall ensure that there is first a verbal consultation among all targeted persons, whereby a Ã¢â¬Ëwater-testingÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy shall be undertaken to have an idea of those who will be willing to be involved in the study and those who are not. Thereafter, a consent form that clearly spells out all ethical considerations including the need to keep the identities of respondents confidential and anonymous shall be released to the targeted stakeholders. It is hoped that with the assurance of ensuring high sense and level of ethics, the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership and fellow staff will be willing to be part of the study. Description of current problem The current issue has to do with the introduction of a new intervention that seeks to tackle the problem of obesity in children. This paper highlgihts that the need and rationale behind the present issue is rooted in the weaknesses identified in the current procedure. Presently, the fight against obesity in children is approached using the masses procedure. By this, all children suffering from obesity are categorized as one group of persons with a common problem and thus demanding a common intervention. However, for some years now that this strategy has been used, it has been found that the strategy has been very ineffective in yielding needed results. This is because according to state data and record, regardless of the existing procedure, obesity in children continues to go high. The proposed intervention would therefore take a form and structure that is directly opposite to what exists currently. This is bec ause it will identify children with obesity as individual persons rather than a group. With this, the researcher shall have the opportunity to critically scrutinizing the cause of each childÃ¢â¬â¢s risk of obesity. Thereafter, the researcher shall be offered the opportunity to assigning the most suitable solutions to each childÃ¢â¬â¢s case; noting that they all have different causes to their problems. A very crucial part of the proposed solution or issue is that is it backed with several theories and research findings.Ã
Friday, October 18, 2019
Crime-Prevention Strategies - Essay Example Crime prevention techniques are being introduced by the criminologists so that the people avoid doing any crimes. These crime prevention techniques are basically designed to lessen the prospects of committing specific crimes by people. And these techniques are further known as the Situational Crime Prevention Techniques. In the world today the crime rate is increasing day by day as the punishments granted by the government have not proved enough for the culprit to avoid the offense the next time. Seeing this situation in the world the criminologists have adopted the way of preventing crime rather than bringing the criminals to justice. And thus the process of 'Situational Crime Prevention' came into use. This word derived by the criminologists meant to make the offenders avoid the crimes they are about to commit through different ways. The opportunities which the offenders get due to lack of security and other factors are analyzed by the criminologists. By the process of Situational Crime Prevention the criminologists aim to lessen the opportunities which the offenders are getting to commit the crime. i.e. if a person who is rich and does not get protection from guards may have the chance to get robbed. And here the role of the Crime Prevention comes when they make the rich person have proper securi ty. The problem of crime was arising in the housing sector when the burglars were entering the houses and robbing the people of their possessions. This situation was closely analyzed by the criminologists and a solution was sorted out with the help of Situational Crime Prevention. This solution made the houses have a good architectural design which would make the offenders avoid entering the premises of the house. For e.g. if the house is well lit in the night and secured, the offenders would avoid taking the risk of entering it. Similarly other Situational Crime Prevention techniques make use of such tools and designs. The techniques included the better structuring of buildings and the possible targets being secured more properly. The possible targets were analyzed by their market demand. Situational Crime Prevention is based on some principles so as to the crime can be fully avoided. The set-up of a certain possible target is made such that the effort required to rob or commit a c rime on that target is made much higher. This discourages the offender from committing the crime. For e.g. to enter a certain building one may have to cross the walls but the walls of the building would be made so tall that no person would be able to enter it without support. Similarly the risk involved in committing a crime would be made such that the offender would not dare to commit it. For e.g. the security alarms would be so enhanced that any person who may enter the premises may be caught or the person may be shot dead at the very moment. In particular the security of a certain place or person would be increased. The rewards or the loot of the possible target would be made as lower as possible so it wouldn't attract the offenders. The governments are taking such measures that the stolen material is not easily sold in the market. And anyone caught selling it may be brought to justice by the court of law. Car stereos are being made removable so that it is not easy to steal these stereos. And lastly the feeling
Multiculturalism - Research Proposal Example This also applies to the aspect of multiculturalism. Multiculturalism remains a controversial issue in many regions, including Canada. While some people consider it negative, some view it as positive. Nonetheless, the importance of multiculturalism is quite evident, thus it is important to explore the evidence that shows that multiculturalism is important in society.Thesis Statement/central argument A key argument in this proposal is that multiculturalism is a good thing in society, and so people need to embrace and develop this phenomenon, in order to realize development in various aspects of their lives and country. Methods and procedures In order to provide evidence to support the argument in this proposal, the method of literature review will be utilized. In this method, evidence will be drawn from past literature, which has focused on multiculturalism, as well as how this is important for the realization of development in the life of an individual, and in society as a whole. Evi dence and sources that will be used to support the argument The sources used will be drawn from various journals. Journal articles are authentic, thus reliable for supporting major arguments. Additionally, these provide valid information, which is also reliable and can be used for reference purposes. In total, seven journal articles will be utilized. These are published in various journals and focus on the issue of multiculturalism. Using these sources will help to support the argument that has been advanced in the proposal.
Thursday, October 17, 2019
What Role does Bundle Sheaths Play in C4 Plants - Essay Example Bundle sheath cells are the major site of refixation of the CO2 and C4 acid decarboxylation. The mesophyll cells also concentrate the CO2 and send it to the bundle sheath cells. NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) are expressed in the bundle sheath cells of the C4 plants. They are the major enzymes responsible for the refixation of the CO2 from the C4 acid. (Nomura et al. 2005). In C4 leaves, each vein is surrounded by a ring of the bundle sheath cells surrounded again by the mesophyll cells. These bundle sheaths have the chloroplasts arranged centrifugally with the large starch granules and unstacked thylakoid membranes. In the bundle sheath cells ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) enzyme accumulates extensively. The specific enzyme activity can be easily determined by using the non aqueous fractionation techniques and pulse labeling techniques. (Majeran et al. 2005).
Australian Accounting Philosophies and Theories - Essay Example Clearly, the Ã¢â¬Å"Within the discourse of CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY, various concepts are used to express the rights and obligations that corporations have, to those they work with and work forÃ¢â¬ corporate responsibility had been accomplished through the compliance of SAC no. 1 and accounting pronouncements by the International Accounting Standards Board. SAC no 1 states that general purpose financial reports like the balance sheet, income statement and statement of cash flows should be prepared when there are users. The Australian corporation is responsible for the proper periodic recording of daily business operations and presenting them in audited general purpose financial reports in accordance with the International Accounting Standards Board. The IASB accounting pronouncements had superseded the Australian SAC 1 to 5 in the year 2005 yet. These IASB authoritative pronouncements are being followed in most countries of the world. The IASBÃ¢â¬â¢s main purpose is to facilita te communication and understanding among the different users of the financial statements by using the same accounting procedures. The implementation of these accounting pronouncements in the audited recording of the assets, liabilities, capital, revenues, expenses and net income of all Australian corporation is in compliance with its corporate responsibility to all its stakeholders. The stakeholders include the stockholders, employees, managers, customers, suppliers, creditors, community, investors, banks, loan institutions, etc.government regulating agencies and other interested parties. The corporation must comply with governmentÃ¢â¬â¢ anti- air pollution laws, anti-water pollutions laws, zoning regulations and other city and state laws and regulations. Also, the government tax agencies will continuously monitor if the Australian companies paid the correct amount of taxes by scrutinizing the corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ audited financial statements. Furthermore, the corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ board of directors will use the financial statement to determine if the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s actual performance for the entire year exceeded their pre-planned goals and objectives. In addition, the other stakeholders will use
Wednesday, October 16, 2019
What Role does Bundle Sheaths Play in C4 Plants - Essay Example Bundle sheath cells are the major site of refixation of the CO2 and C4 acid decarboxylation. The mesophyll cells also concentrate the CO2 and send it to the bundle sheath cells. NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) are expressed in the bundle sheath cells of the C4 plants. They are the major enzymes responsible for the refixation of the CO2 from the C4 acid. (Nomura et al. 2005). In C4 leaves, each vein is surrounded by a ring of the bundle sheath cells surrounded again by the mesophyll cells. These bundle sheaths have the chloroplasts arranged centrifugally with the large starch granules and unstacked thylakoid membranes. In the bundle sheath cells ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) enzyme accumulates extensively. The specific enzyme activity can be easily determined by using the non aqueous fractionation techniques and pulse labeling techniques. (Majeran et al. 2005).
Tuesday, October 15, 2019
Martin Luther King Jr's use of ethos pathos and logos in his I have a dream speach - Essay Example In terms of rhetorical theory, ethos represents the implementation of ethics and morals as a rhetorical tool. One of KingÃ¢â¬â¢s most powerful implementation of logos appears when he states, Ã¢â¬Å"One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discriminationÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬ËI Have a Dream SpeechÃ¢â¬â¢). Here King is comparing the oppression of the modern African-American with the same oppression that was experienced during slavery. This is a powerful implementation of ethos as it implements societies understanding of the wrongness of slavery in demonstrating that similar events continue to occur. Logos is understood as the rhetorical implementation of logic and reason as primary argumentative techniques. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s speech makes great use of logos. One of the most powerful implementations of this occurs when King references the Declaration of Independence. He states, Ã¢â¬Å"It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concernedÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬ËI Have a Dream SpeechÃ¢â¬â¢). Of course, King is referencing the nature of the Declaration of Independence as proclaiming the unalienable rights of all citizens.
Monday, October 14, 2019
Research Method in Biological Level of Analysis Psychology Essay Examine the use of one research method used in the biological level of analysis, including an evaluation of the ethical considerations related to them. The case studies method consists in taking a patient personal history in order to take a diagnosis. It is usually applied in persons that have abnormal characteristics in behaviour, at biological or at cognitive level; it can also be applied to a group of people that are under the same situation. Case study is a long-term research where the patient or the group of people are studied to get into a conclusion. This type of study investigates and recollects qualitative data, such as feelings and experiences. At the same time it also includes quantitative data of measurements such as blood testing, IQ scores and other survey data. An example of case-study method is the Phineas Gage research. Phineas was the man who had an accident and a metal pole entered through its skull. It entered through his left cheek and exited through its frontal lobe. There were many factors that made of this situation really abnormal. Just after the accident Phineas was awake. He lost the vision in his left eye, but in his right eye the vision was perfect. Besides he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t suffer any paralysis and had no difficulty with speech or language. However, the doctor noted that his intellectual abilities and his emotional control had been destroyed. Gage had become impatient, indulgent and though he made plans for hi future he could never follow them. He could be described as a child. According to the long-term case study, his frontal lobe provided evidence that the brain affects personality and social behaviour. This is a really important research because it presents one of the biological level of analysis, the one that refers there are biological correlates of behaviour. Here we can see how damaged physiological factor can affect behaviour. Besides it shows us how case studies are really useful, because not all changes in behaviour happen from one day to another. As this study evidenced the process in which the behaviour starts to see affected is a long-term process. Case studies of the brain-damaged patients have led to important findings about the brain. According to the ethics in this type of research, probably there are more negative facts tan positive facts. Case studies researches are not ethical because the patient is treated, observed and examined like it is a completely different person compared to the others. Besides it can invade your personal spaces and take you away some privacy. The researcher gets to know deeply personal information fro the patient, which is not usually shared with other people. Besides, some of this information may be published or at least written up as a research report, in order to be used in a future as valid information in researches, etc. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why the identity of the person should be always protected; the researcher needs to cover all the details that could lead others to work out the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. In the case of Phineas Gage most of this ethical considerations werenÃ¢â¬â¢t taked into count. They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t covered up his identity, beside they go into details of his personal life. In conclusion the case studies are really important because are the ones that lead us to conclusions about real life issues and particular problems. The researches done by this method are really accurate and play a really important role in psychology biological level of analysis.
Sunday, October 13, 2019
Analysis of Reading Lolita in Tehran by Azar Nafisi The real Azar Nafisi Reading Lolita in Tehran is a book written by Azar Nafisi and talks about the struggles of a woman was born in Iran moved to the United States to study abroad. She got most of her education from the US and the UK. She moved back to Iran in the late 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s and she found here country was in a revolution and war was everywhere. The book it divided into four parts Lolita, Gatsby, James, and Austen each tells a part of the story and her life. She goes on to explain what has happened to her country and the teachings that she has done. Nafisi used to teach at different schools in Iran but the school board found her teachings wrong and expelled her. She was fed up so she got some of her best students and brought them over her house each week to discuss about all sorts of different books. Everyone there used the classes as an escape from reality of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s rules and control because they were able to discus about all they wanted and to let out what they felt about their dreams wishes without anyone judging them, Since they were all woman and womanÃ¢â¬â¢s had no rights in Islam. One moment I the book that stood out to me in part one was when NafisiÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, a person who is nothing like a Muslim woman marries a proper Muslim man they somehow work it out. Her mother loves to wear a chador because she feels is something very special to her. What gave me a shock was when the mother taught her daughter English instead of Arabic and that the father allows her. Back then woman werenÃ¢â¬â¢t forced to wear a chador so u can tell how much she loved her husband. During the time Nafisi was teaching the seven students at her house why she was so shocked to see her students come out of her shell or in her words Ã¢â¬Å"I could not get over the shock of seeing them shed their mandatory veils and robes and burst into colorÃ¢â¬ (Azar Nafisi 5) She wanted to teach what the schools deemed wrong so she got her seven best students and used the teachings to release all of their ideas, emotions, and frustrations with each other as they discussed books and other literary works. In the article titled Ã¢â¬Å"The book clubÃ¢â¬ by Sam Munson she explains how when Nafisis was teaching in the schools the government started to decide what was allowed and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like what Nafisis was teachings so she got expelled and that is what got her to make this small club with some of her students. Soon each one of here students started to open up to each other Ã¢â¬Å"Gradually, each one gained an outline and a shape, becoming her own inimitable selfÃ¢â¬ (Az ar Nafisi 5) In part two of the book you start to see all the different type of personalityÃ¢â¬â¢s that her students have and how special they are. It also shows that Nafisis knew them very well before she picked them. She let her students be the judge and jury of the books even though she knew the answer. Even if the students didnÃ¢â¬â¢t talk for the books she got them to start thinking for themselves and not just follow someone. In Iran they only allowed works from Tehran to be read. Nafisis got the books and asked her students to evaluate them based on their writing and literature they also focuses a lot of their time on Gatsby to review and learn from it. Why was Nafisis having trouble with her marriage? Her father went to jail so she was left alone and during that time she said Ã¢â¬Å"I was insecure enough to marry on the spur of a moment, before my eighteenth birthdayÃ¢â¬ (Azar Nafisi 83) She married a man who Ã¢â¬Å"wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t like usÃ¢â¬ (Azar Nafisi 83) she thought of him as he was full of himself and that he was crazy jealous this prompted Nafisis to want a divorce with him. The only way she could get a divorce was to get the approval of her father and he agreed when she said she would not sue for alimony. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Lolita in Tehran Author Goes SilentÃ¢â¬ by Madeline Brand said that Nafisis had suffered all her life. Her mother died when she was so young and her father was put in jail. That might be the reason to why she wanted to marry at such a young age. Because the author is from Iran you can see a lot of the connections made in the story. The struggles she faces and how she overcomes them and also when she moved to the United States she sees the world different since itÃ¢â¬â¢s a new place. She then goes back to Iran and itÃ¢â¬â¢s under war and she canÃ¢â¬â¢t teach anymore since she got expelled. It is related to the novel in a big way since she has a lot of experience with her home country and her background of a hard life, how her mom died when she was young and her father put in jail. She was left alone. In the biographic article titled Ã¢â¬Å"Azar NafisiÃ¢â¬ by Ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter he wrote a wonderful article on her struggles and her biographical of her young age and what she went through. The tone in the novel is morel like rebellious because the woman are under oppression and they want to be free so they try to go Ã¢â¬Å"against the manÃ¢â¬ most of the time and it relates a lot with the characters since most of them are female. Nafisi especially, she teaches at a school then the school no longer allows her to teach there because of her content so in order to rebel she gets some of her best students who are also female and brings them over to her hose for the weekend to discuss the books and topics that she was discussing when she was still teaching. The article Ã¢â¬Å"Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books. (Arts Letters)Ã¢â¬ by Christopher Byrd he states Ã¢â¬Å"Nafisi convincingly argues, pose an even greater threat to a despotic orthodoxy than any open display of political rebellion.Ã¢â¬ Showing her rebellious nature, she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to feel inferior and the tone of the novel is set around not being oppressed she shows it a lot in the story. The relationship about this novel and the topic of literature is that in the novel Nafisi Loves to teach and on her first day of school asked if fiction is even important in literature. The way itÃ¢â¬â¢s related is by how the novel is being presented itÃ¢â¬â¢s not just a story it tells the story of a person and the hardships they went thru. The story itself is an expression of individual thought and the feeling of accomplishing from the creative process. Authors wish to share their experiences with their novels and books, their understanding and observations. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like making music you share what you are feeling using words in a song. In conclusion the book Reading Lolita in Tehran was a good read, it talked about the struggles Nafisi had in her life how she became a teacher moved to the united states then came back to her home town of Iran to find out itÃ¢â¬â¢s at war and she canÃ¢â¬â¢t teach anymore so she starts her own Ã¢â¬Å"clubÃ¢â¬ where she picked some of her best students and discussed with them about books. It also talks about some parts of The Great Gatsby in part II and the reactions it had with the people from her weekend club. This book was interesting and I would read it again if I had to. Work Cited Nafisi, Azar. Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books, 2003. Kindle file. Books, Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in, and Sam Munson. The book club. CommentaryÃ 116.2 (2003): 72+. Literature Resource Center. Web. 26 Apr. 2014. Lolita in Tehran Author Goes Silent. Day To Day 29 Dec. 2008. Literature Resource Center.Ã Web. 26 Apr. 2014. Azar Nafisi. Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 313. Detroit: Gale,Ã 2012. Literature Resource Center. Web. 26 Apr. 2014. Byrd, Christopher. Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books. (Arts Letters). The WilsonÃ Quarterly 27.3 (2003): 126+. Literature Resource Center. Web. 26 Apr. 2014.
Saturday, October 12, 2019
Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl Patchwork Girl, a hypertext vision sewn together by Shelley Jackson, is a story and an account of the creation of a monster and the relationship the mind has with the monster within the technical boundary of lexia. The monster metaphorically was originally created by Mary Shelley in Frankenstein, but has now resurfaced in a layered identity with an opposing forum of complexity. Jackson has designed her version of the timeless tale from the female perspective by offering the reader not only a facet into the monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, but that of MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s, the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s, and of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s, which accounts for three female angles of perception. Through each narrative voice (and/or lexia), the reader discovers the psychological nightmare of mental maturity and the pains of achieving the ultimate sense of creativity or life. For Mary it is the obsession of the creation of life and the dedication to keep a promise, while for the girl and the monster it is the aspect of finding the understanding and acceptance in a stitched life. However, for Shelley Jackson the nightmare is the hyper literary challenge of stitching together thought and creation in fictional prose to show the relationship of mother to child or writer to the word by the means of technology. The Hypertext fiction Patchwork Girl is offered with three primary story lines in lexia story format, which is effectively connected or stitched together to reveal the lives of Mary, Shelley, the girl, and the monster from the creative impulse of the mindÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination visually represented in a non-linear string of links. As the reader or in this case user enters the hypertextual world of Shelley JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s words, the initial question, "Where should I begin," ... ...readers or audience a compelling story, visual stimulation, various inter-linked story progression, unlimited path access, complex thematic motives, and unpredictability of discovery. For these reasons alone, it can be assumed that hypertext fiction will intrigue itself into the spectrum of popular culture and with that establish a longevity, which may surpass previous forms of literary media. Works Cited and Consulted Hayles, N. Katherine. "Simulating Narratives: What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us." Critical Inquiry 26 (1999): 1-26. ---. "Virtual Bodies and Flickering Signifiers." How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. 25-49. Jackson, Shelley. Patchwork Girl by Mary/Shelley and herself. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems, 1995. Electronic. .
Friday, October 11, 2019
this is the best study guide I could find. Just match the questions with the answers for the study guide. Chapter 15: Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is true regarding forward scheduling? Forward scheduling is the scheduling of a. the end items or finished products b. jobs as soon as the requirements are known c. the start items or component parts d. the final operation first beginning with the due date Which of the following best describes how short-term schedules are prepared? Short-term schedules are prepared a. directly from the aggregate plans b. directly from the capacity plans c. rom inventory records for items that have been used up d. from master schedules which are derived from aggregate plans Which scheduling technique should be employed when due dates are important for a job order? a. forward scheduling b. loading c. dispatching d. backward scheduling e. master scheduling Which of the following is not an effectiveness criterion for scheduling? a. maxim izing flow time b. minimizing completion time c. minimizing WIP inventory d. maximizing utilization Forward scheduling a. begins with a delivery date, then each operation is offset one at a time, in reverse order b. s well suited where the supplier is usually able to meet precise delivery dates c. tends to minimize in-process inventory d. assumes that procurement of material and operations start as soon as requirements are known Which file contains important information regarding an item's flow through the shop? a. routing file b. work center master file c. control files d. item master file Which of these is not part of the planning files of a production planning and control system? a. a progress file b. a work center master file c. an item master file d. a routing file Which of the following files tracks work order progress? . work center master files b. routing files c. item master files d. control files 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The production database containing information about each of the components that a firm produces or purchases is the a. routing file b. work center master file c. control file d. item master file The short-term scheduling activity called loading a. assigns dates to specific jobs or operations steps b. specifies the order in which jobs should be done at each center c. assigns jobs to work centers d. assigns workers to jobs The assignment method is a. a method to highlight overloads in a given work center b. computerized method of determining appropriate tasks for an operation c. a form of linear programming for optimally assigning tasks or jobs to resources d. the same thing as the Gantt schedule chart A scheduling technique used to achieve optimum, one-to-one matching of tasks and resources is a. the assignment method b. Johnson's rule c. the CDS Algorithm d. the appointment method Which of the following is an aid used to monitor jobs in process? a. a Gantt load chart b. the assignment method c. a Gantt schedule chart d. Johnson's Rul e If an assignment problem consists of 6 workers and 7 projects, a. ne worker will not get a project assignment b. one worker will be assigned two projects c. each worker will contribute work toward the seventh project d. one project will not get a worker assigned Orders are processed in the sequence in which they arrive if (the) ______ rule sequences the jobs. a. earliest due date b. slack time remaining c. first come, first serve d. critical ratio 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Which of the following dispatching rules ordinarily gives the best results when the criterion is lowest time for completion of the full sequence of jobs? a. shortest processing time (SPT) b. critical ratio (CR) c. irst in, first out (FIFO) d. first come, first serve (FCFS) 17. Sequencing (or dispatching) a. assigns dates to specific jobs or operations steps b. assigns jobs to work centers c. specifies the order in which jobs should be done at each center d. assigns workers to jobs 18. Five jobs (A, B, C, D, E) are waiting to be processed. Their processing times and due dates are given below. Using the shortest processing time dispatching rule, in which order should the jobs be processed? Job A B C D E a. b. c. d. Processing Time (days) 4 7 8 3 5 A, B, C, D, E C, E, A, D, B B, D, A, E, C D, A, E, B, C Job due date (days) 7 4 11 5 8 9. Five jobs are waiting to be processed. Their processing times and due dates are given below. Using the earliest due date dispatching rule, in which order should the jobs be processed? Job A B C D E a. b. c. d. Processing Time (days) 4 2 8 3 5 C, E, A, D, B A, B, C, D, E B, D, A, E, C C, B, A, E, D Job due date (days) 7 4 11 5 8 20. Flow time represents the time a. an order spends waiting for processing at a work center b. an order spends being processed at a work center c. an order spends moving from one work center to another d. o complete an order, including time spent in processing and in waiting Which of the following dispatching rules tends to minimize job flow time? a. FCFS: first come, first served b. SPT: shortest processing time c. EDD: earliest due date d. LPT: longest processing time Average completion time for a schedule sequence at a work center is total a. processing time divided by the number of jobs b. flow time divided by total processing time c. flow time divided by the number of jobs d. processing time plus total late time divided by number of jobs Five welding jobs are waiting to be processed. Their processing times and due dates are given below. Using the critical ratio dispatching rule, in which order should the jobs be processed? 21. 22. 23. Job A B C D E a. b. c. d. 24. Processing Time (days) 4 2 8 3 5 B, D, A, E, C C, D, A, B, E C, E, A, D, B E, B, A, D, C Job due date (days) 7 4 11 5 11 Which of the following dispatching rules allows easy updates? a. FCFS: first come, first served b. SPT: shortest processing time c. EDD: earliest due date d. CR: critical ratio The priority rule which processes jobs according to the smallest ratio of due date to processing time is: a. ritical ratio b. earliest due date c. first come, first serve d. longest processing time Which of the following is an advantage of the FCFS dispatching rule when used in services? a. FCFS seems fair to customers b. FCFS minimizes the average number of jobs in the system c. FCFS minimizes the average lateness of all jobs d. FCFS maximizes the number of jobs completed on time The most appropriate sequencin g rule to use if the goal is to dynamically track the progress of jobs and establish relative priority on a common basis is a. shortest processing time b. earliest due date c. critical ratio d. Johnson's rule Use of the sequencing rule Shortest Processing Time generally results in a. minimum average lateness b. maximum utilization c. maximum effectiveness d. minimum average flow time When a set of jobs must pass through two workstations whose sequence is fixed, ______ is the rule most commonly applied. a. Johnson's Rule b. earliest due date rule c. first come, first serve rule d. slack time remaining A recent advance in short-term scheduling that makes use of expert systems and simulation in solving dynamic scheduling problems is a. forward scheduling b. backward scheduling c. infinite scheduling 5. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. d. finite scheduling 31. Which of the following techniques does not contribute to increasing throughput at a bottleneck? a. schedule throughput to match capacity of the bottleneck b. increase capacity of constraint c. have cross-trained employees available to operate the constraint d. develop alternate routings An appliance manufacturer assembles icemakers in large batches. The operations manager would like to significantly reduce the batch size. What would you suggest? a. use the SPT rule b. use forward scheduling c. use finite scheduling d. develop level material use schedules 33. A firm wants to develop a level material use schedule based on the following data. What should be the setup cost? desired lot size: 60 annual demand: 40,000 holding cost: $20 per unit per year daily production rate: 320 # of work days per year: 250 a. b. c. d. 34. $0. 45 $4. 50 $45 $450 32. Factory X is trying to use level use scheduling. If their first target were to cut the current lot size in half, by what proportion must setup cost change? a. Setup cost must be cut to one-fourth its current value. b. Setup cost must also be cut in half from its current value. c. Setup cost must double from its current value. . Cannot be determined. Which of the following is true regarding services scheduling? a. The Critical Ratio sequencing rule is widely used for fairness to customers. b. The emphasis is on staffing levels, not materials. c. Reservation systems are often used a means of manipulating the supply of services. d. Labor use can be intensive, and labor demand is usually stable. c d c a c d c d b c b d 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. a a c d a d a d a a b 35. Chapter 15: Multiple Choice Answers 13. 1. b 14. 2. d 15. 3. d 16. 4. a 17. 5. d 18. 6. a 19. 7. a 20. 8. d 21. 9. d 22. 10. c 23. 11. c 24. 12. a
Thursday, October 10, 2019
This chapter contains the discussion of the research design, the locale of the study, the respondents of the study, research instruments and validation of instruments, research procedure and statistical treatment of the data used in the study. Research Design The descriptive method of research will be use in this study withthe questionnaire as the main tool in gathering the needed data. Also use to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe Ã¢â¬Å"what existsÃ¢â¬ with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. On the other hand, the descriptive research design is scientific methods which involve observing and describing the behavior of subject without influencing it in any way. A grade point average is descriptive statistic that summarizes progress during studentÃ¢â¬â¢s academic tenure. It is conducted for a number of reasons. The methods involved range from the survey which describes the status quo and deals with everything that can be counted and studied to justify the validity of the research study that is beneficial to the company, schools and future researcher. The method revealed the personal background of the company and the status of the system, as well as certain perceptions of the type of system, how the present system works, as well as certain files and the common problem encountered in using their present system. Descriptive studies are done as the first step in a research investigation in order to find more information on a given topic to generate hypothesis. Statistically, the researchers made use of the z-test to determine whether the types of inventory they will have, has a great effect on their operational period. Z-test assesses if the hypothesis being stated will be rejected or not. Among to 33 small sized licensed drugstore in the town of San Pedro Laguna. Sources of Data The researchers utilized the empirical or direct data to attain the objectives of the study, which are gathered from three parts of questionnaires: The first part of the questionnaires contains four questions regarding on what inventory system the entity have, common problem that they face and how they refill their stock. Ã The second part contains six questions with regards to: if they encounter any problems regarding on preparation of inventory, if they experience hard to do it, if they experience delay on receiving new batches of drugs that they ordered, what types of payment they preferred and are they willing to adopt new system/strategy to be use in preparing inventory system. The third part contains nine statements with regards to evaluation on inventory system. The respondents will be asked to rate several items. Each item will be decided based on the following legend: (5) Strongly Agree, (4) Agree, (3) Neutral, (2) Disagree and (1) for Strongly Disagree Respondents of the Study The respondents of this research includes licensed small sized pharmacies in the town of San Pedro Laguna. Determination of sample size The population size is 36, the researcher get the sample size in order to find out how many respondents they will going to ask. Here is the formula: n = N/1+Ne^2 Where: N = Population size n = Sample size e = Margin of error Margin of error is 5% this percentage is an allowance for non-precision since a sample is used instead of a population. This formula is one of the easiest to follow and most convenient to use in determining the sample size. Computation: n = 36/1+36(.05)^2 n =36/1+36(.0025) n=36/1.09 n=33 Table 3.1 Registered List of Pharmacies in San Pedro, Laguna Small Sized Pharmacy in San Pedro Laguna| Population of small sized Pharmacy| Percentage%| Calendola| 2| 6%| Camella Homes Woodhills Subdivison| 2| 6%| Chrysanthemum| 1| 2.78%| Langgam| 3| 8%| Landayan| 3| 8%| Narra| 3| 8%| Nueva| 6| 16%| Pacita| 4| 11%| Poblacion| 2| 6%| Purok 3| 1| 2.78%| Sampaguita| 1| 2.78%| San Antonio| 5| 14%| Sitio Bukid Riverside| 1| 2.78%| Sto. Nino| 1| 2.78%| United Bayanihan| 1| 2.78%| Total| 36| 100%| Research Instruments Since this research is design to find out if there is an effect of manual inventory system in small sized pharmacy in dealing with in its operation. The researcher used the questionnaire survey method. A questionnaire is/are search instrument consisting of a series of question and other prompts for the purpose of gathering from respondents. The steps required to design and admi nister a questionnaire include: 1. Defining the objective of survey2. Determining the sampling group 3. Writing the questionnaire 4. Administering the questionnaire 5. Interpretation of the Results Validation of Instruments It is necessary to validate questionnaires. It is underwent validation by floating them to group of persons. The research questionnaire underwent validation with the help of our Research Adviser. Research Procedure The researcher have ask permission from the owner of the entity before gathering data and information needed in the research regarding the operation of the business and the problems encountered in their current system through a proposal letter and permission to conduct interviews. Statistical Treatment of Data The researchers will use frequency, weighted mean and percentage in analysis and interpretation of data gathering. After which, to check hypothesis the researchers will use Hypothesis Testing (Z-test) formula is show below: Percentage(%) this is use for the presentation demographic profile of the respondents. To get percentage, this equation is used as %=f/nx100 Where: % = Percentage f = frequency n = size of the sample 100 Ã¢â¬â constant And after getting the frequency weÃ¢â¬â¢re going to get are mean. Of those who answered that they experience having difficulty in making their inventory on the type of inventory system that they have. We are seeking to answer if the types of inventory system that they have make them to experienced difficulty in performing it and also if they encountered problems with regards to the type of system that they have by getting the average mean of those who answered yes they encountered problems and they having difficulty . 1. Compute for P: Let x = number of respondents said that they experience difficulty and problems n = total number of population p =proportion of respondents said that they experience difficulty and problems After obtaining the proportion of respondents who said they experience difficulty and problems by having this type of system, the next thing to do is to compute for the standard error. 2. Compute SP Let Sp =Standard error (For p and n; consider the above description) Sp = p1-p/n 3. Compute Ãâ¬o Let Ãâ¬ = parameter value Z = 1.645-tabular value for Z, level of significance at 95% confidence level. Ãâ¬ = p-(ZÃ¢ËÅ¾)(Sp) 4. Testing the significance of parameter value 5. Ho: Ãâ¬o < Ãâ¬o Ha: Ãâ¬o Ã¢â° ¥ Ãâ¬o 6. Z < 1..645 = Accept Ho Z > 1.645 Accept Ha 7. Compute Z Z = x-nÃâ¬o/nÃâ¬o(1-Ãâ¬o)