Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Jamie Oliver Essay Example for Free

Jamie Oliver Essay Jamie Oliver is a chef who has made a number of television programmes for Channel 4; in most of these programmes he is cooking and instructing the audience, although he is sometimes part of documentaries about food, for example in schools. His style of speech is very different to many of his contemporaries: he uses his distinctive style to present himself as a down to earth, friendly TV chef. Oliver is the only person talking in this transcript because he is cooking and explaining his actions for the TV show. The fact that he is cooking while talking means that there are numerous pauses in the transcript, for example ‘you wanna coat the bottom (3) of the pan’. The three second pause indicates that he is demonstrating this action on the programme; it is important in his role as a TV chef that he doesn’t just sit and talk through a recipe because viewers want to see the recipes being made and they also want to be entertained and kept interested by Oliver moving around in the kitchen. Other pauses suggest that, although this programme is probably scripted to some degree, Oliver is not reading from an autocue but retains an element of spontaneity to his speech. The pauses at the start of the transcript, ‘I got a pan (.) er the right size pan about (.) sort of seven inches’, are indicators of this spontaneity, as is the non-fluent ‘er’. Although sometimes a sign of nervousness, in this case I think the pauses help Oliver to appear normal, like his viewers, so they are more likely to attempt his recipes and, of course, buy his books. Jamie Oliver’s Esturary accent and his accompanying use of London slang are also distinctive features of his talk. Words such as ‘chivvy’ and ‘squiggle’ are colloquial and are not words we expect to hear on a cooking programme. We are used to words from the cooking semantic field such as ‘whisk’, ‘bake’, ‘stir’ but Oliver’s language use again makes him seem very normal, approachable and relaxed. As well as specifically accented words such as the dropping of the ‘h’ in ‘orrible’, Oliver’s elisions ‘gonna’, ‘wanna’ and ‘kinda’ demonstrate his relaxed tone. As well as using these to build a successful TV persona, Oliver could be using this informal language because he is concentrating more on the actual cooking and explaining the key details of the recipe rather than the functional language he uses. It is important that Oliver does not appear too bossy to his audience: they need to feel like they can relate to him; it is therefore important that he moderates his use of imperatives. Throughout the transcript, he softens his instructions to viewers: ‘about (.) sort of seven inches’; ‘I guess er that’s on a medium heat’; this lack of precision is encouraging to people watching his because it suggests this recipe is easy to follow. The self-deprecating suggestion that Oliver is not entirely sure of what he is doing, just guessing, means that he does not assume a too-powerful position in relation to his viewers. Again, he needs to appear imitable and not too complicated. He continues to reassure the audience by saying ‘where there’s a gap there don’t worry (.) just tilt the pan’. The pause after ‘don’t worry’ suggests that he is about to offer a solution to viewers in case they are worried about this issue. The word ‘just’ implies that the solution is simple and easy, so Oliver maintains his persona as the ‘friendly, easy’ TV chef in contrast with someone like Heston Blumenthal and his very technical, scientific recipes that cannot be replicated in ordinary kitchens. Although he tones down his instructions, it is necessary for Oliver to be as clear as possible about some aspects of the recipe, seen when he says ‘don’t rush it otherwise (1) if you cook eggs too hard and too fast †¦which we don’t like’. His instruction is very clear when he says ‘don’t rush it’ but he then moderates this by explaining the reason for saying it, ‘if†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢He goes on to use the first person plural pronoun ‘we’ to indicate that the audience is included in this decision about how eggs should taste, this is not just Jamie Oliver making a pronouncement that must be obeyed. In conclusion, Jamie Oliver uses many features of talk that are typical of TV chefs, such as numerous pauses and imperative instructions which are essential in his role, but he also has a very distinctive personal style of talk, characterised by his accent, use of slang and colloquial vocabulary. He uses his own idiolect to create a successful TV personality that viewers can relate to and follow as a cooking role model.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Chlorophyll Essay -- Research Paper Science Cancer Papers

Chlorophyll Research Paper Many studies in the area of cancer research are opening up new possibilities for cures and prevention measures. One area of research is directed at the effects that chlorophyll may have on cancer cells within the human body. Research is being conducted to investigate whether chlorophyll has important cancer fighting factors that may play a role in the destruction of cancer cells or whether it is an effective preventive agent. Intensive research for naturally occurring plant products which reduce genotoxic effects are driven by the increasing exposure of humans to environmental toxins (Sarkar, 1994). Experimental evidence indicates a strong relationship and connection between diet and cancer prevention. One’s food choices have been consistently shown to be a determinant factor of human cancer risk (Arbogast, 1995). A positive correlation was shown between the chlorophyll content of vegetable extract with the vegetables’ antimutagenic activity (Sarkar, 1994). Chlorophyll is of considerable interest as an anticarcinogenic substance because it is so abundant in the green vegetables that humans consume. Chlorophyll also has shown no toxic effects to humans (Arbogast, 1995). It is not clear however whether effective uptake of chlorophyll through diet would be enough to protect against certain types of cancers or whether one would need to take supplements along with a balanced diet (Ar bogast, 1995) Derivatives of chlorophyll may also be an important aid in preventing or managing cancer. Research indicates that foods yielding chlorophyll derivatives may play a major role in cancer prevention. Chlorophyll derivatives have a high affinity for tumor tissue in comparison to normal... ...y, S., Poretz, R., and Segelman, A. Effect of Dietary Chlorophyll Derivatives on Mutagenesis and Tumor Cell Growth. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis., 79 : 313-322, 1999. Hortensteiner, S., Ougham, H., and Thomas, H. Ring in the new, Ring out the old. IGER innovations., 1 : 1-5, 1998. McKinley, T. Class outline procedure protocol. Department of Biology. Concord College : 2002. Ross, C., Salisbury, F. Plant Physiology. Wadsworth Publishing Company., 3 : 181-183, 1985. Sarkar, D., Sharma, A., and Talukder, G. Chlorophyll and chlorophyllin as modifiers of genotoxic effects. Mutation Research., 318 : 239-247, 1994. Taiz, L., and Zeinger, E. Plant Physiology. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Redwood City, CA. : 179-218, 1991. Ting, I. Plant Physiology. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc., 1: 400, 1982.

Monday, January 13, 2020

How to Plan for a Listening and Speaking Lesson

How to plan For a Listening Skill Lesson Teacher | Observer | Date | Lesson number | Class level Elementary| Number of students| Timetable fit| Previous lesson: Reading and speaking skillThis lesson: Listening and speaking skillNext lesson: Listening and speaking skill| for the teacher)| To provide an engaging lessons for students and improving their listening skill. * To monitor closely and make sure the lesson is successful. | Objectives (for the students)| By the end of the lesson the students will: 1) Have practiced listening for gist of a radio program. 2) Have learnt the vocabulary related to professions/jobs.Language AnalysisForm Meaning PronunciationLexis in text Guess (v, present simple) supposeQuiz (n, sing) a test of knowledgeTeam (n, a group of playersUnemployed (v, past) Writer (n, sing)Guest (n, sing) a person who is invited to take part in a function by other personDepends (v, simple present) relyUniform (n, sing)Special qualifications (special= adjective, qualificati ons = noun, pl)A lot of (phrase) manyActor (n, sing) role player in drama or filmProfessional (adj) a person who has a professionFootballer (n, sing) who plays footballDo you work†¦? Where? When? How? Topic vocabularyJobs/professions| Assumed knowledge| The students know about different professions like doctor, footballer, and artist. They also know the difference between profession and hobby. | Anticipated problems | 1) This is a radio program some students may not understand it. Students may want to repeat it. 2) Weaker student may not understand the phrases and some of the vocabulary. 3) This can prevent them from completing the comprehension tasks. Solutions| 1. Check elicit before students listen. 2. Include review of vocabulary at the beginning. | Materials | Radio program: Guess the jobFlash cards/pictures of various people doing different jobsOther handouts: (comprehension Qs) – teacher’s own| | Interaction| Procedure| Rationale| 7 mins4 mins3 mins4mins| T -SS-ST-SST-S(pairs/triplets)| 1. Context setT elicits vocabulary related to jobs using picture. Drill if required. A) Where do people work? B) How do they work? When do they work? What kind of information you need to find out what is somebody’s job. Feedback- Pre-teach guess, Quiz, a lot of, unemployed, special qualifications. 2.Prediction taskStudents look at the picture and a) say what they can see and b) what is going on in the program. Feedback- teacher clarifies/elicits and write a brief summary on the board. | To motivate the students so that they take part in the lesson. To prepare the students for what is coming up. | Lesson Content Timing| Interaction| Procedure| Rationale| 3 mins3 mins3 mins 3 mins | SS-Ss-sT-SS| 3. 1st Listening (gist)Students listen to the program and tell whether they recognized the vocabulary. Did they find program what they have guessed before similar to the written on the board? Task- students write the answers in y/n on the handouts. Check wi th the partner. Feedback-check as class. | To know that the students have understood the program. |

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Probability of a Large Straight in Yahtzee in One Roll

Yahtzee is a dice game that uses five standard six-sided dice. On each turn, players are given three rolls to obtain several different objectives. After each roll, a player may decide which of the dice (if any) are to be retained and which are to be rerolled. The objectives include a variety of different kinds of combinations, many of which are taken from poker. Every different kind of combination is worth a different amount of points. Two of the types of combinations that players must roll are called straights: a small straight and a large straight. Like poker straights, these combinations consist of sequential dice. Small straights employ four of the five dice and large straights use all five dice. Due to the randomness of the rolling of dice, probability can be used to analyze how likely it is to roll a large straight in a single roll. Assumptions We assume that the dice used are fair and independent of one another. Thus there is a uniform sample space consisting of all possible rolls of the five dice. Although Yahtzee allows three rolls, for simplicity we will only consider the case that we obtain a large straight in a single roll. Sample Space Since we are working with a uniform sample space, the calculation of our probability becomes a calculation of a couple of counting problems. The probability of a straight is the number of ways to roll a straight, divided by the number of outcomes in the sample space. It is very easy to count the number of outcomes in the sample space. We are rolling five dice and each of these dice can have one of six different outcomes. A basic application of the multiplication principle tells us that the sample space has 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 65 7776 outcomes. This number will be the denominator of all of the fractions that we use for our probabilities. Number of Straights Next, we need to know how many ways there are to roll a large straight. This is more difficult than calculating the size of the sample space. The reason why this is harder is because there is more subtlety in how we count. A large straight is harder to roll than a small straight, but it is easier to count the number of ways of rolling a large straight than the number of ways of rolling a small straight. This type of straight consists of five sequential numbers. Since there are only six different numbers on the dice, there are only two possible large straights: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Now we determine the different number of ways to roll a particular set of dice that give us a straight. For a large straight with the dice {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} we can have the dice in any order. So the following are different ways of rolling the same straight: 1, 2, 3, 4, 55, 4, 3, 2, 11, 3, 5, 2, 4 It would be tedious to list all of the possible ways to get a 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Since we only need to know how many ways there are to do this, we can use some basic counting techniques. We note that all that we are doing is permuting the five dice. There are 5! 120 ways of doing this. Since there are two combinations of dice to make a large straight and 120 ways to roll each of these, there are 2 x 120 240 ways to roll a large straight. Probability Now the probability of rolling a large straight is a simple division calculation. Since there are 240 ways to roll a large straight in a single roll and there are 7776 rolls of five dice possible, the probability of rolling a large straight is 240/7776, which is close to 1/32 and 3.1%. Of course, it is more likely than not that the first roll is not a straight. If this is the case, then we are allowed two more rolls making a straight much more likely. The probability of this is much more complicated to determine because of all of the possible situations that would need to be considered.