Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Earthquakes Major Earthquakes for 60s and 70s. In the map have plotted the major earthquakes for the 60s and 70s. The major earthquake areas are in the area around the Pacific Ocean. Most of the earthquakes happened at these areas and for this reason they call it Pacific Ring of Fire. Earthquakes may occur anywhere, even in the middle of very stable continental areas. Most of the earthquakes take place at the ridge of pacific plate that are the Eurasian plate, Philippine plate, Bismark plate, and Caroline plate. Most of the earthquakes occurred at 70s than 60s. In this decade (70s) a lot of earthquakes happened almost at the same point. With these results we can figure it out that a lot of earthquakes are going to follow at these areas. Some of these areas that consider them self major earthquakes areas are the Solomon islands, Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan, Japan, Fiji, Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Equator and Peru. Especially at the Fuji, Solomon Islands, Japan, Philippines and Equator a lot of major earthq uakes occurred at these areas. In these areas we have a lot of major earthquakes because the types of the boundaries is convergent. This means the places are coming together and through these process a lot of earthquakes hit these areas. Beside the Pacific Ring of Fire there are some others major earthquakes areas that are far away from each other. The different between these two is that the earthquake doesnt occur at the same point or near to this point like the Pacific Ring of Fire. . Geography
Sunday, November 24, 2019
The Concept of Strategic Planning and Its Relevance Abstract The purpose of this essay is to analyse the concept of strategic planning and its relevance to the activities of an organization. Strategic planning has been viewed as an important cornerstone in the decision making activities of an organization. It enables an organization to achieve its goals and objectives through the development of plans. These plans can either be long term, medium or short term depending on the type of business and the context that strategic planning will be used in.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Concept of Strategic Planning and Its Relevance specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Introduction Strategic practitioners recognised the importance of strategies in the processes and operations of an organization which saw a lot of emphasis being placed on strategy which later saw the development of strategic planning as an organizational concept. Strategic planning slowly replaced corporate p lanning which mostly involved developing formal plans that lacked any strategic focus. This change was largely due to the emphasis placed on the planning activities of an organization. The relationships that were meant to result from this change sometimes could not be achieved. Researchers found that only few organizations were able to succeed in achieving their goals and objectives through the use of strategies. Practitioners of strategic planning have founded their research efforts on the assumption that the creative task of formulating and implementing strategies can be designed into a series of actions referred to as planning that will lead to results that can be repeated in the future. Definition of Strategic Planning Strategic planning is a technique that is used to organize the present activities of an organization to reflect the desired future projections of what the organization wants to achieve over a certain period of time. A strategic plan is a map or guide that will be used to lead the organization from where it is now to where it would like to be. Strategic planning mostly focuses on the external environment of an organization. Since every organization has different activities and operations that set it apart from other companies, the strategic plans of every organization will therefore be different from that of the other organization; therefore Strategic planning systems will be designed to deal with the unique characteristics of organizations (Samson and Daft 2009). Strategic planning is derived from strategy which is the layout of a plan or set of actions that will be used by the organization to achieve their objectives. Strategic planning is the systematic and formalised effort made by an organization to develop detailed plans that would be used to implement the objectives, goals, strategies, and policies of an organization (Wittman and Reuter, 2008). Planning deals with looking at the future results of current decisions that are made by deci sion makers. This means that strategic planning provides managers and people in positions of decision making with the cause and effect of consequences that would occur over time if that particular decision was made. If the decision maker does not like the results of the decision, he can easily change it to one that would yield positive results. Strategic planning looks at the alternative courses of action that are available in the future and what options are chosen from these alternatives, they are used as a basis for making present day decisionsAdvertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Grunic and Kuhn (2008) viewed strategic planning as a process that began with the identification of objectives and goals which later led to the development of organizational strategies, plans and policies that would be used to achieve these goals. Strategic planning was seen to be a process of making decisions in advance that would determine what kind of planning activities would be undertaken and how these activities would be done. The process was also systematic as the various activities were organized in a sequence. Strategic planning process was geared towards companies that had their operations and activities in one particular industry within the market. The basic format of a strategic planning process that is used by most organizations is to first develop the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission, objectives and goals as a first step. Once this is done the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s internal and external environment is assessed to determine the strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats. The next step will involve selecting strategies that will be used to deal with the identified strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats. The organization should ensure that the identified strategies are in line with its mission ad goals. After the app ropriate strategies are identified and developed, they are finally implemented. Hills and Jones (2009) note that organizations go through a new process of strategic planning every year as a result of changing business environments and the global economy. This however does not mean that new strategies have to be identified and implemented every year. What usually happens in most organizations is that the strategies are modified or reaffirmed since the strategic plan is usually designed for a period of more than five years. Strategic Planning for Small businesses and Improved Performance Given all the evidence on the benefits of strategic planning, most small businesses still do not practice planning. Most of the concepts and research on strategic planning have been geared towards helping larger organizations. Managers of small businesses mostly focus on the short term rather than on the long term strategies. Their decision making technique is characterised to be reactive instead of p roactive and deliberate. For those managers who do practice strategic planning, the process is mostly characterised by ad hoc instead of formal activities (Wang et al. 2006).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Concept of Strategic Planning and Its Relevance specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to May (2010), small business owners today are realising more than ever that they need strategic planning to make decisions. This has emerged out of their uneasiness about what the future holds for their businesses or the fact that they have attained the present level of small business success without any strategic planning and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel like proceeding with ventures that they are unsure will yield any profits. Such uncertainties lead them to secure stable and predictable styles of management that mostly involve strategic planning. The main difference of strategic planning for both the large and small busin esses is that the larger organization can financially afford to conduct extensive strategic planning activities which at times might be very expensive while the small business has a limited amount of financial resources. The strategic activities of the smaller organization might be limited or constrained due to finances; the smaller business will also mostly rely on its internal resources do the planning (May, 2010). Wang et al (2006) conducted investigations on why some small businesses failed in their activities and operations. They noted that the major reason was attributed to the lack of strategic planning and poor business motivation. Previous studies by scholars such as Mintzberg, Crawford and Lefebvre also suggested that formal strategic planning systems in small organizations were absent. The authors noted that small business strategic planning was mostly characterized by informal planning systems that were unstructured and sporadic. Other characteristics were that the proce ss was viewed to be incomprehensive, incremental and reactive. Wang et al (2006) note that the motivation for a small business owner to be in business was mostly interwoven with their personal lives. Most small businesses are family owned which shows that the personal motivation in starting the business lies in trying to provide a better life for the business owners and their families. Some of these owner usually lack a business background or the technical known how of running the business. This means that they lack basic strategic planning information. Such a situation enables the businesses owners and entrepreneurs to get away with developing short term strategic plans for their businesses .Because of the size of the firm and constant uncertainty in the global business environment, small business have a limited ability to control events. That is why their focus is on short term and medium planning instead of long term. The strategic model should be designed in a simple and inexpen sive way Pitfalls of Strategic Planning The main problems experienced by small businesses when trying to initiate the planning process have been identified as the lack of time and lack of proper strategic planning knowledge. But when managers discover ways to overcome these constraints, strategic planning can lead to the improved performance of the business.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Small business managers need to gain an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of small businesses which will set a strong foundation for strategic planning activities. The size and simple structure of small firms allows them to increase their responsiveness to external changes. In discussing the failure of the concept, various studies have been referred to further explain why strategic planning sometimes fails in organizations. One pitfall is that no one study has been found that has assessed the outcomes of deviating from the long range plans. All studies that have been conducted on the subject do not show whether there has been any negative consequences of not following the long range strategic plan. Another pitfall came from an earlier study that highlighted that while particular companies engaged in systematically planned activities, other organizations that did not engage in strategic planning were able to surpass these companies performance wise; this showed that t he best planners did not always perform the best (Dimitrou and Thompson, 2007). Studies done in the 1970s by scholars such as Malik and Karger found favourable results when strategic planning was used while other studies such as those done by Sheehan, Grinyer and Norburn did not see any benefits of practicing strategic planning. Henry Mintzberg after a review of these studies came up with a conclusion that planning was not the only best way. He noted that in some circumstances it did not pay and that when planning was at its best, it might have had some suitability to particular and not all organizational contexts. Another pitfall of strategic planning is that most companies find the solutions derived from the formal process of strategic planning to not be what they had actually expected. They usually had a basic idea of the kind of results to expect once the process was done. Strategic planning makes a majority of the firms today to engage in less risky forms of long range planning in their decision making activities which often at times do not yield the best results. Major criticisms have been drawn to the fact that strategic planning does not in any way contribute to the strategic thinking of major decision makers in organizations. Many of the benefits that accrue from strategic planning cannot be measured and it is difficult to prove the planning process in absolute terms. This is due to the fact when the planning process is initiated; it becomes hard to compare what has happened with what could have happened. This leads to a lot of speculations and formation of assumptions that are in most cases usually wrong. There is also another pitfall in the form of identifying the amount of costs that have been used in the planning process (Hill and Jones, 2009). These costs can only be seen if additional profit made by the organization exceeds the additional costs used in planning. Logical expectations of most organizations are that strategic planning will lead the company to be successful in the future; this is a big misconception. Most managers view strategic plans to be the key that will lead the organization to market success which explains why they become devastated when the strategic plans fail (Hill and Jones, 2009). Conclusion Planning activities are important to an organization to ensure that everything moves in a systematic and orderly manner. Without planning the members of an organization would lack a guide or plan that would direct them to achieve the organizational mission, vision, goals and objectives. Planning is therefore to be the most important activity that an organization should undertake to ensure that it runs smoothly and effectively. Strategic planning should also be given the same level of importance as general organizational planning. While strategic planning for organizations has been going on for a very long time, the smaller businesses are yet to catch on, yet planning is very important for an organization to achi eve optimum success through the proper utilization of resources. Strategic planning might have some pitfalls but when used in the proper way and in the right organizational context, it can improve the performance of both large and small businesses. Managers should therefore exercise this concept to ensure the decisions they make now will reflect what the organization wants to achieve in the future. References Dimitrou, H.T., and Thompson, R. (2007) Strategic planning for regional development inÃ the UK. Oxford, UK: Routledge Grunic, R. and Kuhn, R. (2008) Process based strategic planning. 5th Edition. Berlin: Springer- Verlag Hill, C., and Jones, G. (2009) Strategic management theory: an integrated approach.Ã Ohio, US: South Western Cengage Learning May, M.G. (2010) Strategic planning. New York: Business Expert Press Samson, D., and Daft, R.L. (2009) Management Third Asia Pacific Edition. Australia: Cengage Learning Wang, C., Walker, E.A., and Redmond, J. (2006) Ownership motiva tion and strategic planning in small businesses. Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship andÃ Sustainability. Vol II, No.4 Wittman, R. and Reuter, M.P. (2008) Strategic planning: how to deliver maximum valueÃ through effective business. London: Kogan Page
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Design evaluation - Essay Example In the United Kingdom today copper is a popular material used for facades, roofs and other external building elements on some of the most exciting modern designs. But this has not always been so. Historically, copper roofs several hunÃ ¬dred years old can be seen on many British city skylines, although usually limited to churches, civic buildings and other important structures. During the twentieth century, copper roofs became more widely used for ordinary buildings Ã¢â¬â although many were of little architecÃ ¬tural quality. Unfortunately, poor deÃ ¬tailed design and installation techniques resulted in technical failures and the material fell out of fashion until the 1980s. Then, the copper industry introÃ ¬duced modern installation techniques to the UK Ã¢â¬â including the long-strip methÃ ¬od Ã¢â¬â and launched a promotional camÃ ¬paign to make architects aware of copÃ ¬per as a thoroughly modern architectural material. This Ã¢â¬ËCopper in ArchitectureÃ¢â¬â¢ cam paign continues today.(Article by Tom Woolley in Sustain magazine, vol 3 no 3) It highlights the ability for copper sheets to be easily formed to suit any three-dimensional shape, making it a suitable weatherproof covering for virtually any external surface including roofs of all pitches, vertical cladding, gutters, soffits and even sculptural elements. Architects now recognise that it is one of the few materials that can offer complete mateÃ ¬rial continuity and real freedom of form in architectural design.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The Marketing Situation of X Infotech - Research Paper Example X Infotech services are sought after by a host of customers, in different sectors, as Mainframes have applications everywhere. Installing a new server costs around $100,000, with storage solutions costing extra. Naturally, most customers of the firm are company representatives or startup businesses. The company neednÃ¢â¬â¢t bother about Age and psychographic information about its customers, as most of them are young geeks looking for a foothold entry into new business models. Most orders are placed online, or through customer calls Monday to Friday. Maintenance of systems is a major priority, as Mainframes systems are subject to command failure, or allied shortage. For this purpose only, the company hires trained, experienced technical staff on a per-request basis, and is gradually expanding its scales. The core philosophy of X Infotech is Ã¢â¬Å"commitment to customer needsÃ¢â¬ , for which it is continually striving ahead. One new emerging area is the dot com boom. Many start up s rely on highly-secure 128 K encryption devices, to facilitate payment options on their websites, thanks to the arrival of e-commerce. This calls for enormous space in the server area. As mentioned in the Boston Matrix, this falls under Question Marks, and it has become the most significant business for IBM vendors. After initial installation, a large number of controlling applications in Mainframes can be configured online. All the customer has to do is, log on to numerous vendors which understand the particular script in which the programs have been initialized. Naturally, low-cost vendors from India are an attractive option to several cost-conscious customers, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s not good news for X Infotech, who need to do their homework well, if not willing to be eaten by trouble brewing abroad.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Marketing Midterm - Essay Example 19; Boone & Kurtz 12). Thus, marketing seeks to create a need for certain product or service offerings. This is eventually true especially in the case when there are many key players providing the same product or service offerings for the people. One of the best known strategies is to sell products through their brands, but this is going to take a remarkable process. Apple Incorporated and its branding strategy Apple Incorporated is known for its being a market leader in its industry because of its innovative strategy particularly on product differentiation. It managed to leapfrog the competition (De Wit & Meyer 681). In fact, it carries different line of products with significantly well-known brands. The goal of Apple Incorporated is to always go for new product strategy so as to be the market leader in its industry. Apple Incorporated has been renowned in the world because of its ability to create a need for its product and service offerings. This is specifically its competitive ad vantage and the bottom line is to create a significant trust among its customers for its brands. As a result, Apple Incorporated is remarkably known for its competitive brands in the market (OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady 56).
Friday, November 15, 2019
Implementation of Reliable and Cost Effective Smart Home Automation is the trend that will define the way we will live and work over the next decade. Current home automation systems have limitations in terms of wireless connectivity, speed, interference, bandwidth and cost of implementation. The proposed smart home system provides wireless control of appliances such as lights, fans, and alarms by using sensors and Bluetooth. Bluetooth provides higher transmission speed, greater bandwidth, and consumes less power than existing wireless protocols. Further, the cost of implementation is minimized with the use of sensors and Bluetooth. This design incorporates an ARM7 processor that continuously collects light intensity, temperature, and carbon-monoxide levels from sensors and compares it with threshold levels, to determine the control operation to be performed on home appliances. The ARM7 processor access appliances using Bluetooth. Further, this smart home system also allows individuals to directly control their appliances through a smartpho ne-based android application. This smart home system is implemented and tested under varying conditions to represent its efficiency. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ADC Analog to Digital Converter ARM Advanced RISC Machines BLE Bluetooth Low Energy CPSR Current Program Status Register DTE Data Terminal Equipment FEC Forward Error Correction FH-CDMA Frequency Hopping Code Division Multiple Access FIQ Fast Interrupt Request HVAC High Voltage Alternating Current LCD Liquid Crystal Display PPM RISC Parts Per Million Reduced Instruction Set Computer RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter UPB Universal Powerline Bus USB Universal Serial Bus CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Home Automation Worlds Fair of 1934 in Chicago marked the birth of home automation. Initially, the industry could not make an enormous impact on society. The reason for the slow start was high price and complexity making it hard to install. However as smartphones and tablets came into existence, the implementation of this technology became much easier. The automation technology helps in achieving greater efficiency and provides higher security. Expectations from a Smart Home The major parameters to look for in the implementation of a smart home can be as follows: Compatibility of the protocol. The system should communicate with the major protocols in home automation like ZigBee, Z-Wave, and Bluetooth. Wireless access. The system should be capable of wireless connection such as Wi-Fi Connectivity thereby eliminating all physical complexities. Scope for expansion. The system should support a higher number of products. Scope for scheduling. The design of the system should be able to support scheduling of different tasks at home like turning off lights when nobody at home. Remote access. Having an Android support is imperative these days. If the system is compatible with a smartphone, it makes this process very smooth as almost every individual today has a smartphone. Emergency notification. The system should send messages indicating emergency or threat to the house. Smart Home Community Response Various studies have been conducted to find out if consumers are ready to take up smart home technology. A study from Coldwell Banker Real Estate and CNET carried out in June 2015, said that 28% of internet users in The United States have smart homes and 90% of them would recommend smart home technology. The report also suggests that 25% of Americans use smart home products which save them around 30 minutes a day on average which are equivalent to $1,000 per year. As per a survey, 75% of the smart homeowners believe that this technology brings peace of mind regarding security. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Existing Protocols in Home Automation Industry The increase in the use of smart home systems leads to the development of different protocols. The protocols are selected based on the type of communication among various connected devices. Let us see the major protocols in home automation industry: X10 Technology X10 is the oldest home automation protocol developed in 1970. Initially, the technology was a powerline-based system which slowly went wireless. X10 technology uses the power lines in the home to allow communication between various appliances. X10 is reliable as it makes use of power lines. However, it is subject to interference from other devices in the circuit. It does not provide a speed communication between devices. It can only perform 16 commands sent one at a time. INSTEON Technology INSTEON was introduced in the year 2005. It was designed to bridge the gap between powerline systems and wireless protocols. INSTEON is compatible with X10 technology making it easy for those who have an existing X10 network. It supports automation novices which make setting up or adding devices easy for the non-technical users. INSTEON can support more than 65,000 commands. It is capable of transmitting commands with little interference. One need not have to enroll INSTEON into home automation network. INSTEON network can have more than 400 devices connected in a single installation. The dual-band mesh network can convert all powerline-operated devices into repeaters ZigBee Technology ZigBee is a wireless communication standard built by IEEE. It runs on 802.15.4 wireless communication standard. ZigBee is growing significantly in recent times. However, ZigBees full acceptance as a home automation protocol is still in question. The reason being its interoperability. In most cases, ZigBee devices have difficulty in communicating with devices from other manufacturers. Each device uses different methods to accomplish the same task which causes the difficulty in communication. Perhaps, for the same reason, manufacturers use ZigBee to limit third-party devices. Wi-Fi Technology Wi-Fi stands for Wireless Fidelity. Wi-Fi makes use of radio frequency transmission of data through the air. Speed in a Wi-Fi connection may vary from 1mbps to 2mbps. Wi-Fi works in the frequency band of 2.4 GHz. The range for Wi-Fi is 40-300 feet. Wi-Fi runs on an inbuilt technology known as frequency division multiplexing technology. However, the major drawback with Wi-Fi is the interference and bandwidth issues. With too many Wi-Fi compatible devices, each device must fight for bandwidth resulting in more time to respond thereby making it work slowly. Also, Wi-Fi consumes much power. CHAPTER 3 BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY In 1994, Ericsson Mobile Communications was the first to initiate research on the possibility of wireless links. Their aim was to develop a cost-effective solution to replace cables as a mode of communication between computers and peripherals. Ericsson along with Nokia, Intel, IBM, and Toshiba, formed a group known as Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) with a common motive of developing the unique technology. The first Bluetooth technical specification released in 1999. Bluetooth Specification Bluetooth specification for Classic Bluetooth/Bluetooth Basic Rate/Enhanced Data Rate (BR/EDR) is below in Table 1. TABLE 1. Specifications of Classic Bluetooth Technical Specification Classic Bluetooth Modulation Technique Frequency Hopping Modulation Scheme GFSK Modulation Index 0.35 Number of Channels 79 Channel Bandwidth 1 MHz Nominal Data Rate 1-3 Mbps Application Throughput 0.7 2.1 Mbps Nodes/Active Slaves 7 Security 56 128 bit Voice Capable Bluetooth Technology A Good Choice for Smart Home Bluetooth is a solution to some different issues which existed earlier, like: Speed.Bluetooth provides a transmission speed of 1 Mbps. It can handle up to three voice channels simultaneously. Power.Bluetooth technology has a special feature of limiting the transmitters power as per the demand. With the help of a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), a Bluetooth receiver can determine the transmission power required by the transmitter. Security.Bluetooth has three built-in features which aim at providing secure data or voice transmission Prevents access to transmitted data by providing proper authentication. Data is encrypted over-the-air (OTA) which eliminated eaves-droppings. Also, an appropriate key is required to decrypt such data It makes use of Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum (FHSS) which further eliminates eavesdropping Reliability.Bluetooth Technology uses three techniques to ensure protocol reliability. They are Frequency Hopping Code Division Multiple Access (FH-CDMA), Error Correction and Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI). Therefore, with the help of these techniques, the performance degradation is minimized. CHAPTER 4 SYSTEM COMPONENTS Hardware Components TABLE 2. Components Required for the Design Power Supply 12V DC Battery Processor Advanced RISC Machine (ARM7) Serial Communication Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter (UART) Wireless Communication Bluetooth Module Sensors Light Dependent Resistor (LDR), Temperature Sensor (LM35), and Gas Sensor (MQ-2) Display Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)Smart Phone Display Loads/Appliances/Devices LED, Computer Fan, and Alarm/Buzzer Software Applications TABLE 3. Software Required for the Design MATLAB To capture the sensor outputs KEIL To write the code for the functioning of processor Flash Magic To deploy the code into the processor SYSTEM ARRANGEMENT Power Supply The prototype uses an AJC D1.3S battery with 12 Volt/1.3Ah configuration. Liquid Crystal Display The prototype uses an 1602A LCD module with following features 16 Character x 2 Line Single power supply of 5V Input data 4-bits or 8-bits interface 1/16Duty, 1/5Bias Relay The prototype uses NRP07-C12DS relay to control the loads. Rating 10A/28VDC Maximum Switching Voltage 30VDC Operate Time 8msec. Max Release Time 5msec. Max Bluetooth Module BT24 Bluetooth module is a low cost series from Amped RF Technology. Configuration Cortex-M3 microprocessor up to 72MHz UART, up to 921K baud 13 general purpose I/O 4 x 12-bit A/D inputs AmpedUP Bluetooth stack (SPP, IAP, A2DP) Support Apple IOS/MFI Bluetooth devices. BT24 Features Bluetooth v3.0 Range up to 60m LOS 400 Kbps data through-put 128-bit encryption security. Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) Processor In 1985, Acorn computers developed the first prototype of ARM in England. ARM stands for Advanced RISC Machine. Currently, ARM is designed and marketed by ARM Holdings. As the name suggests, ARM uses RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) architecture. The design, instruction set and decode mechanism of the RISC is much simpler than Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) design. ARM Features ARM7 has the following features: 32-bit RISC processor Low power consumption: 0.6mA/MHz at 3V fabricated Fast interrupt response for real-time applications Fully static operation ideal for power sensitive applications High-performance RISC: 17 MIPS sustained at 25 MHz at 3V In-System Programming/In-Application Programming (ISP/IAP) via on-chip boot- loader software. Single flash sector or full chip erase in 400 ms and programming of 256 bytes in 1ms. Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter (UART) UART is a chip designed to control all serial devices connected to a processor. The name asynchronous means that UART does not need a predefined clock for synchronization. UART comes with an RS232 Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) which helps to communicate with serial devices. It has a Start bit, seven data bits, a parity bit and a stop bit. UART provides a full duplex transmission which means that data transfer is possible in two ways, simultaneously. Therefore, both the ends have to come to an agreement with the parameters like word length, a parity bit, and some stop bits. Features UART has the following features, Burst rates up to 6 M-bits/second High level of transmission and reception of data UART converts the received bytes into single serial bit stream for transmission Provides buffering of data to maintain the coordination of serial devices with the computer Parity, overrun and framing error detection. Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) Sensor An LDR has a resistance which changes as per the amount of light falling upon it. It is often used to detect the presence of light in a circuit. An LDR has a high resistance of about 1000000 ohms. However, the resistance falls drastically once the bright light falls on it. Characteristics TABLE 4. LDR Characteristics Parameter Conditions Min Type Max Unit Cell Resistance 1000 LUX10 LUX 4009 OhmK Ohm Dark Resistance 1 M Ohm Dark Capacitance 3.5 pF Rise Time 1000 LUX10 LUX 2.818 msms Fall Time 1000 LUX10 LUX 48120 msms Voltage AC/DC Peak 320 V max Current 75 mA max Power Dissipation 100 mW max Operating Temperature -60 +75 Deg. C Temperature Sensor LM35 is a national semiconductor precision temperature sensor. It is a temperature sensitive voltage source. For every 1oC rise in temperature, the voltage increases by 10mV. In other words, the output voltage is linearly proportional to the temperature. Specification Linear +10-mV/oC scale factor Rated for full -55 oC to 150 oC range Suitable for remote applications Operates from 4 V to 30 V Low self-heating, 0.08 oC in still air 0.5 oC ensured accuracy (at 25 oC). Smoke Sensor MQ-2 gas sensor consists of a sensitive material called SnO2. SnO2 has lower conductivity which helps in the working of MQ-2 in clean air. Characteristics High sensitivity to LPG, Propane and Hydrogen Sensitivity to Combustible gas in wide range Long Life and Low Cost Specifications TABLE 5. Specifications of Gas Sensor Concentration 300 10000ppm Loop Voltage 5 Slope
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Free College Essays - The Power of a Single Act of Iniquity in Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter :: Scarlet Letter essays
The Scarlet Letter: The Power of a Single Act of Iniquity The world of Puritan New England, like the world of today, was filled with evil temptations. Some people were able to withstand these temptations; unfortunately, many others fell victim to the evil. A single act of iniquity was sufficient to devastate a person's life. In The Scarlet Letter, Hester, Chillingworth, and Dimmesdale were each destroyed mentally and physically by one diabolical act that mushroomed to overcome their lives. Hester's life was the one which most externally displayed the destruction inflicted upon it by wrong-doing. Physically, she "stood on the scaffold of pillory, an infant on her arm, and the letter 'A' in scarlet, fantastically embroidered with gold thread upon her bosom" (The Scarlet Letter 66). Because of the "A", the entire community knew she had sinned, and she became a social outcast. In her attempts to pay penance for her sins, she lived a life of poverty, donating most of her income to charity. However, even the most lowly and wretched of the creatures in Boston, which she helped, "not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them" (87). Furthermore she left behind her beauty and elaborate dress for a dress of the "coarsest materials and the most sombre hue" (86). Hester's sin also harmed her mind and soul. The joy she found in knitting, "like all other joys, she rejected it as a sin" (87). Also, she suffered each time she saw Dimmesdale. A mutual love remained between them, but they could not show the love. Even a brief encounter with Dimmesdale, the father of her daughter, would cause "a deeper throb of pain; for, in that brief interval, she had sinned anew" (89). Moreover, at one point, she had begun to lose faith in the fact that her daughter was human. She began to believe the sayings of townspeople who "had given out that poor little Pearl was a demon offspring" (100). Hence her body and mind suffered greatly for her sin of adultery. Roger Chillingworth's life was also destroyed by his evil. The most noticeable of his changes was the degradation of his physical appearance. When he was first seen in the novel, "there was a remarkable intelligence in his features, as of a person who had so cultivated his mental part that it could not fail to mould the physical to itself and become manifest by unmistakable tokens" (67).
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Globalization literally means the process by which the local phenomenon is transformed into global ones where every person in the world is united into a single society and work together as dependent partners. For a country to be globalized, it has to coordinate its economic, social, cultural, political and political aspects. Basically, the term Globalization has been used to refer to only the financial aspect of Economic Globalization which is the transformation of National Economy into International Economy through Technology, Capital Flow, Foreign Investment, Migration and Trade (Hirst and Thompson, 247). According to the UN-ESCWA , the term means, elimination or minimizing of national boarders so that the flow of goods, services, capital and labor can be facilitated. As globalization continues to sweep every nation, it has had its ups and downs. While on one side it helps in opening up of new markets and wealth creation, on the other end, it is a major contributor to the world disorder and unrest. Economic globalization can be measured using mainly four economic flows:- goods and Services, Technology, Capital and Labor (Bracer and Costello, pp. 19). This essay will look at the features of Globalization in Australia, How the process is driven, the effect that it has had on political scene of the country and finally it will look at how it has affected Australian relationship with other countries. Political Perspective of Globalization Australian Globalization has taken effect on its political system, research resented in (Gupta, pp. 37) show that, apart from concerning itself with the issues of the national governments like security and economic welfare of its people, the Australian government has taken into pursuing political matters in the global arena. They have joined the member groups of known World institutions like the European Union, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization and the World Bank among others to help them in this effect. The influence of the Australian Government through these institutions has managed to transcend even beyond its boarders. By using the Central national government, many NGOs with their origin in Australia have been established to help in numerous global issues like the human right concerns, environmental concerns and civil society matters. Domestic Aspect of Politics of Globalization Globalization effect in Australia has seen the gap between the rich and the poor fall by nearly Ten Percent in less than three decades. And not only did that happen, but there was also a notable reduction in the number of undernourished children. The average life expectancy in the same period of time shot to 66 from 58 years while the infant survival per every 1000 rose to 67 from 44. As the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy grows, say by for instance 10%, so do the poorest people in the country by the same margin, thanks to the liberalization of Trade and high technology(Oxley,2003). Since it started expanding, Australia has done so without any sign of recession. It has been so good in doubling the countries wealth and cutting down on unemployment. This big boom has seen the prime minister, John Howard bolster his political fortune with great confidence. The Australian market which was once an isolated market, has undergone great transformations to the point where it can comfortably take advantage of the global market. AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Domestic and International Economy AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic system is one of the most open in the globe that is; in terms of foreign investment and tariffs. The positive effects of globalization to this country are numerous, some of which are; the Reduction in the transport cost, Easy communication and Cheap offshore production. While it is apparent that globalization can either bring blessings or curses, to Australia it has brought blessings in abundance, The Australian government, through the labor unions have secured great productivity gains. The labor unions which were held in a high state demanded for high pay to their membersÃ¢â¬ ¦ they were granted this wish and the results of it was astounding. It saw a dramatic gain in productivity (Arnoldy. pp. 13). Relationship Between Australia and other Developed and Developing Countries The relationship that Australia has had with different nations is shaped by its position as the leading nation in trade and more so its role as being a major donor of humanitarian aid. It has a strong bilateral tie with all its allies and there keen concern regarding the debated on terrorism, free trade and other economic cooperation strategies ( Croucher, pp. 10). Their active participation in the affairs of Commonwealth Nations and United Nations put them in a position of being a darling of every sovereign state. Australia has also joined several of such world organizations like the Economic and Social Funding in 1994, Security Council in 1986 and Cairns Group of Countries (to press for Agricultural trade reforms). It focuses most of its attention to developing countries like Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Brunei. On the other hand developed nations like the United States, United Kingdom, Japan and China are not left behind. AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s major import partners include China Japan, Germany, and Singapore while its export partners are Japan, China, New Zealand and South Korea (www. worldgrowth. org). The future of Australia seems to be quiet bright as far as globalization is concerned. If the current trend continues, then we will witness a lot more fragmentation, personal freedom, Emergence of bigger organizations and wider connectivity. Works Cited Alan Oxley. (2003) Ã¢â¬Å"Globalization and AustraliaÃ¢â¬ . Australian APEC Center, Monash from www. worldgrowth. org Retrieved on 09-02-2009. Ben Arnoldy. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Australia at the crossroads of globalization Ã¢â¬ . The Christian Science Monitor. Sydney, Australia. pp. 12-19. Bhagwati, Jagdish. (2004). Ã¢â¬Å"In Defense of GlobalizationÃ¢â¬ . Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 51-87. Hirst and Thompson. (2002) Ã¢â¬Å"The Future of GlobalizationÃ¢â¬ . Published: Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 247-265. Jeremy Brecher and Tim Costello. (1994): Ã¢â¬Å"Global Village or Global Pillage: Economic Reconstruction From the Bottom UpÃ¢â¬ . Boston, South End. pp. 19-23. Satya Dev Gupta. (1997): Ã¢â¬Å"The Political Economy of GlobalizationÃ¢â¬ . Boston, Zed Books. pp 29-64. Sheila L. Croucher. (2004). Ã¢â¬Å"Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a Changing WorldÃ¢â¬ . Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 10.
Friday, November 8, 2019
low of goods to the customer Essays low of goods to the customer Essay low of goods to the customer Essay Once the customer has placed the order on the website and his/her payment is cleared and confirmed to the store, the store dispatches the order as per the mode of delivery opted for. Incase the company faces a stock out situation or unavailability of the selected merchandise, the money is refunded to the customer immediately.As one can see from the above diagram, taking the least time case, the supply to the customer takes place immediately. The store also depends on the customer for return purchases and referrals and hence cannot afford a stock out situation. The inventory is required to be as lean as possible especially as some of the products stocked like Hardware is bulky and there is a space constraint. Through accurate demand planning and tighter execution between the retailers and suppliers the store is able to maintain higher margins, more profitable sales and increased revenues.As the company is primarily online, web based forms are used to improve th e accuracy if invoices and give the supply instant shipping invoices. The store buys directly from the manufacturer and hence cuts out the retailer and wholesaler. Barcodes and packing slips are generated along with the incoming shipment and the product order list and inventory database are linked so that potential supply bottlenecks are identified well in advance.The company then passes the cost benefits of buying directly from the manufacturers, having an online store, negligible brick and motor expenses to the customer in the form of price discounts. The company also has an understanding with the product manufacturers which has resulted in goodwill and gives the company reliable delivery and advance notice of any bottlenecks if any. The company also acts as an advertising medium for the manufactures by featuring the products visually and with literature. The company is reputed to give good advice on the equipment and matches the customer with the level of products that he/she may require.The company integrates the information on product price and promotion from their supplier community to its back office systems. The company prides itself on using paper to a minimum by automating the retailing process on both the inbound and outbound areas. By automating the interactions with the suppliers the company witnessed improvement in its fulfillment rates and accuracy through advanced notification and automated supplier acceptance or order schedules or forecasts. This reduced the amount of buffer inventory required to be maintained by the company otherwise.As the company is paid in advance, it does not encounter fraudulent or bad transactions and is able to pass this leverage onto the customer as trade discounts. The company is also able to reward returning customers with additional discounts and offers. As the company sponsors a number of skating events or professional players, manufacturers get an extra mileage from the company. The additional discounts or benefi ts given by the supplier for these advantages to the company are yet again a benefit to the customer.The company maintains a database of the customers profiling their purchase and preferences. As online business is primarily demand driven, the company uses collaborative planning and passes the demand statistics to the manufacturers so that they can make informed decisions. These insights give both the supplier and retailer in creating informed forecast of future business leads culminating in better assortments, promotions and inventory positions.Rising competition and increasing number of products have lead to compressed planning cycles and the company is frequently faced with the need to make planning decisions rapidly. The company is also able to reduce post market purchase order rework by matching assortment plans with the production plans. The plans are aggregated in real time so the authorization and door level analysis is more streamlined and reflect actual situation. As the p roducts offered by the company are varied, there cannot be a daily supplier planning carried out. This would become extremely cumbersome and the supplier would also be given patchy orders. In order to give some consolidation to the supplier order book the company reviews plans with the supplier on a fortnightly basis By shortening and improving the accuracy of the plan , retailers will be able to increase sales by getting new products onto the site and in stock earlier than previously possible.In turn the company asks the supplier to share his assessment of the demand pattern based on collective inputs from all the retailers dealt with. This helps the store identify issues such as new products being marketed differently or new facings, SKUs that the company does not carry. The company uses a combination of sales or return inventory and consignment inventory where the company pays for the goods only on actual sale to a customer and returns those products which remain unsold over a pe riod of time.Logistics plays an important role in promotion management. The company runs many discounts and bumper sales on its website. This would entail a pickup in the number of items sold. The company needs to adjust its replenishment system so the regular system would not be able to adjust to the large scale change in rate of sale. Plus the company has many years of experience and would know the demand pattern to be expected and areas from where it is likely to come. All this knowledge gained through experience needs to be shared with the supply chain and built into the system.Customers who buy in bulk and appear to be serious about the sport would be sent a mailer informing them about upcoming events and inviting them to participate. This would make the customer feel happy, the manufacturer pleased as his product will get more viewers and the company happy with the possibility of repeat sales. The company also could send emails to the customer a period after the product has be en delivered asking after the customer satisfaction with the product. This would not cost the company anything but time.The company should also not sit back and wait for customers to stumble onto its website, there needs to be visual identity of the company and the products it offers and its association with the sport with its owners being professionals and one of the best. This would not cost more than e-newsletters and keyword ads. The company website is easy to navigate but needs to delete old information and promotions on a regular basis else it ends up looking sloppy. The text should be full of potential key words which will make likely or potential customers doing a web search hit the website.The market is a fast moving market with skating being a popular sport in the UK , the competitor needs to be constantly monitored and studied and the market monitored so that the company can attend any sporting events or competitions in the neighborhood to know whatÃ¢â¬â¢s really catchi ng on in the market.Website promotion appears to be a simple process but is in reality a difficult task. It only appears to be a matter of technical support but in reality it uses as much of resources in advertising a offline store. The website needs to be built with careful insight into the audience base and then built around to meet the target expectations. SS2O caters to a wide variety of customers, professional skaters/snowboarders to the common man, customers who are in for the sporting challenge and those looking to make a fashion statement. The target audience may be different from the person shelling out for the purchases. The company also needs to constantly revamp and update its website to remain attractive and showcase new products better.The company can utilize software to enable the customer to post questions to the owners who are professional Ã¢â¬Å"skatersÃ¢â¬ and get live help and guidance. The company can also send out mailers to the customers asking their opinio n on the products displayed, website convenience of navigation, service. There could be a contest designed whereby the customer who gives referrals about the company which actually culminate into sales gets points which convert into discount percentages.Yet another gimmick the store can use is to send out free t-shirts to customers with their purchases, advertising the store name and web link on the back. The store would get mileage as the existence of the store would be promoted in all the corners of the UK.The company could also give its existing customers notification of new products coming to the market and offer them exchange deals Ã¢â¬Å"Old skates for newÃ¢â¬ . The store could then donate the old equipment to charity and get both sales as well as social mileage out of the whole process. As its sales are based on courier delivery the mail company could be instructed to pick up the return package. This would have to be done with customers who are high value only as there coul d be cases of fraud. Yet another promotion option would be to ask customers who are making purchases to donate money towards a sporting event organized for destitute children. The store could then in tandem with the manufacturer organize such an event and get visibility for itself.The company can also consider enabling its inventory management with real time software which alerts both the company and manufacturer of the product movement and upcoming shipping order necessity. This would reduce the compilation of information by the company for the supplier and also prepare him for upcoming shipping invoices.In summation one can say that the marketing promotions and pricing policies are dependent on the efficiency of the supply chain and vice versa. The supply chain efficiency depends on marketing commitment and the information shared by the manufacturers and the company. The company can commit itself to promotions, sales, bumper offers , sponsorships or promotional gimmicks only when its supplier is able to meet up to the demand that such offers would generate. Hence both are vital business processes which must be operated by the company so that they work in tandem motion and not different directions.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Analysis of The Bicycle and its Role in Society Not only are Parents responsible for providing food and shelter for their Children, but they should also help them to develop their mental and physical condition. A Bicycle, a vehicle having two wheels one behind the other, influences a child's physical, intellectual and social development. It also can improve the quality of life. Riding a bicycle will provide children with health and other benefits. A bicycle can save them money in gas and also decrease the rate of pollution First of all, riding a bicycle requires movement of the entire body. It strengthens leg muscles. Moreover, it not only requires stability and balance, but it also develops coordination. It also requires stamina, and therefore keeps a child's heart and lungs strong. A moderate amount of physical activity, like a short cycle-commute, can protect against health problems like obesity, cancer, mature-onset diabetes, and osteoporosis.Next, owning a bike stimulates the intellectual development of a child; first, the ch ild becomes interested in sports, especially in cycling.English: child on a bicycle
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Psychology - Essay Example This research used ANOVA to find out whether there is effectiveness in the way in which information is relayed or communicated. The experiment used a 3 x 3 factorial with three levels of message format (email, telephone, written) and three levels of message length, described as no extras, small, and large. From the experiment, it was demonstrated that in the email format, the participants had more correct answers, than the two Ã¢â¬â telephone and written formats. The written format was next to the email formal. We can analyze here that the email and the written format are almost identical format, although the written format can be considered as more formal in appearance, but is actually identical with the email format. For the three levels of the message length, the Ã¢â¬Ëno extraÃ¢â¬â¢ details got the highest number of correct answer and the highest mean. The email format is more preferred by the participants; meaning the intended information is well received by the participants through the manner of communication, which is email. The email format is easily understood, and this is understandable because it has become the most common form of communication among the young population during the advent and popularity of the internet. The message length also has an effect on how the information is received by the participants. The message length has an effect on all three formats Ã¢â¬â email, telephone, and written. At the Ã¢â¬Ëno extraÃ¢â¬â¢ level, the participants were responding with high scores. This is also true with the telephone and the written formats, although these two were a bit lower when it came to the values of the means. Scores were lower on all three formats when information was relayed and manipulated with Ã¢â¬ËsmallÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËlargeÃ¢â¬â¢ details. We computed the mean of the three formats to the level when information was manipulated to Ã¢â¬ËsmallÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËlargeÃ¢â¬â¢ and we attained intriguing
Friday, November 1, 2019
Genetically Modified Crops are harmful to the enviorment - Essay Example In reality, GMO crops are an invasive species and harmful to the natural environment. Numerous anti-GMO technology activists have come up to condemn the use of GMO within the ecological environment. The Institute for Responsible Technology (IRT Para. 1-10) has provided a biased analysis to the use of GMO crop in the natural environment discouraging the public in the agricultural sector to maintain a firm ground against the use of such crops. One of the reasons why the IRT discourages the proliferation of this technology is the fact that the growth of genetically engineered crops has negative permanent impacts on the environment. For instance, when cross pollination takes place, this species of crop will be spread into the environment and will exist there forever. Resultantly, this species will be propagated within the environment, reducing the number of natural crops existing in the natural ecosystem. The fact that GMO crops are superior in terms of production and the rapid growth ra te, it is not in order for this science to eliminate the natural species within the environment. In this light, GMO crops will hurt the environment by reducing the number of natural plants in existence. The IRT (Para. 3) provides statistical evidence to support its argument against the growth of GMO crops. Surveys conducted in the agriculture industry between 1996 and 2009 show that farmers who grow GMO foods have an increased usage of herbicides every year. The reason underlying this fact is that when weed resistant crops are developed, weeds undergo a genetic mutation forming new inexistent weed species. These Ã¢â¬Å"super weedsÃ¢â¬ are resistant to ordinary herbicides and demand more concentrated forms of chemicals. In the US, GMO crop growers experienced an increase in the cost of chemicals by about $300 million within a period of 12 years. This implies that the natural soils are concentrated with more chemicals increasing its toxicity levels. This is contrary to the proponen ts of this technology who argue that the use of genetically modified crops reduces the use of herbicides. The strength of IRT on the negative environmental impacts of these crops to the environment can be attributed to the statistical evidence that accompanies it. A third argument against the use of the adoption of the genetic modification technology in the agricultural sector is that this technology is a killer of bio-diversity. According to IRT (Para. 4), the proliferation of the GMO technology will hurt the entire bio species and may lead to extinction of even the most endangered species. The genetic modification technology uses lethal chemicals that have long term outstanding impacts on the environment. As these chemicals flow to the water bodies during rainy seasons, they will cause a great risk to the fish, amphibians and all water creatures in the water sources. Equally, all living species that consume GMO crops or water species will be at high risk of infection with untreata ble diseases. For instance, chemicals such as roundup that are used to develop weed resistant crops are cancerous and pose the risk of death to human beings. In essence, adoption of GMO technology will put the entire ecological system in danger including the creator of this technology. Carrington (Para. 1) is among the scholars who have evaluated the other side of the coin as regards the impact of GMO crops